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RULLETIN 

LJ Vol.27, No. l-January-1956 

Chicago Natural 
History Mus e um 




SPIDER WEBS— 

Marvels of Engineering 
(See page 3) 



Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



January, 1956 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery Hughston M. McBain 

Wm. McCormick Blair William H. Mitchell 

Walther Buchen John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Walter J. Cummings Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

Samuel Insull, Jr. John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Hughston M. McBain Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Thbodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Hartb Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Jane Rockwell 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



COLIN C. SANBORN, 

MAMMALOGIST, RETIRES 

Colin Campbell Sanborn, a member of the 
staff of the Department of Zoology since 
1922 and Curator of Mammals since 1937, 
retired from the service of the Museum 
effective December 31. Because of ill health, 
Mr. Sanborn will come 
under the provisions 
of the Museum's Pen- 
sion Plan a number of 
years in advance of 
normal retirement age. 

Mr. Sanborn began 
his career at the Mu- 
seum at the age of 
twenty-five as a field 
collector. He im- 
mediately was dis- 
patched to Chile as 
a member of the Cap- 
tain Marshall Field 

Expedition (1922-24), and his talents as 
a skillful collector were subsequently em- 
ployed on the Captain Marshall Field Ex- 
pedition to Brazil (1926-27), the Magellanic 
Expedition (to Peru, Chile, Argentina, 
Bolivia, 1939-40), two expeditions to Peru 
(1941-42 and 1946), the Rush Watkins 
Zoological Expedition to Siam (1949), the 
Aleutian Zoological Expedition (1952), and 
the National Science Foundation Trinidad 



m 

Colin C. Sanborn 



Field Trip (1954). His explorations in Peru 
have qualified him as an authority on the 
zoogeography of that country. 

Mr. Sanborn was awarded a fellowship 
by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial 
Foundation for a special research project on 
bats in 1938-39, during which he made 
notable studies of collections in the British 
Museum (Natural History) and in principal 
museums on the European continent. Mr. 
Sanborn's interest originally was in orni- 
thology, but early in his association with the 
Museum it turned to mammals. In recent 
years he specialized assiduously in bats and 
built up for the Museum what may be the 
finest collection in existence. He has con- 
tributed twenty-two publications to the 
zoological series published by the Museum 
(Fieldiana) and fifty-six scientific papers to 
mammalogical journals. He also has written 
popular leaflets published by the Museum 
and articles for laymen that have appeared 
in the Museum Bulletin. 

During World War II Mr. Sanborn was 
commissioned in the Navy as lieutenant 
and then as lieutenant-commander. He 
was assigned to special duties in Peru and 
at Pearl Harbor, Washington, D.C., and 
New York. 



THREE STAFF MEMBERS 
ARE PROMOTED 

Effective January 1, Philip Hershkovitz 
has been appointed Curator of Mammals. 
Mr. Hershkovitz was a student at the 
University of Pittsburgh and the University 
of Michigan, earning both bachelor's and 
master's degrees in science at the latter. 
He joined the Museum staff in 1947 as 
Assistant Curator of Mammals, and in 1954 
he was appointed Associate Curator of 
Mammals. For nearly four years (1947-52) 
he conducted the Zoological Expedition to 
Colombia, one of the longest continuous 
collecting undertakings in the history of the 
Museum, and brought back thousands of 
specimens providing a highly varied repre- 
sentation of the country's fauna. Before 
coming to this Museum, he collected for 
several years in Ecuador and Colombia for 
the University of Michigan Museum of 
Zoology and the Smithsonian Institution. 

Mrs. M. Eileen Rocourt has been ap- 
pointed Associate Librarian. She joined the 
staff as Assistant Librarian in 1948. Before 
coming here, she worked in Columbia 
University Libraries, on the staff of Maga- 
zine Digest, and as a translator of five 
European languages. She is a graduate 
(B.A.) of Victoria College, University of 
Toronto, and earned a master of arts degree 
at Columbia University. In the Museum 
Library she has been engaged in very im- 
portant cataloguing and classification tasks. 

Miss Jane Rockwell, Assistant in Public 
Relations since the beginning of 1955, has 
been promoted to Associate Public Relations 
Counsel. She has been a frequent contrib- 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



The spider in the unusual en- 
larged portrait on our cover is the 
female of the common garden 
spider, sometimes called "yellow 
garden spider" or "orange garden 
spider." The web it weaves is 
a marvelous engineering feat, as 
can be learned in a perusal of the 
details told by Lillian A. Ross, 
Associate in the Museum's Divi- 
sion of Insects, in her article on 
page 3. This spider is harmless, 
for although it may bite and in- 
ject poison into a human intrud- 
er, it seldom does, and its poison 
is not dangerous to people. The 
picture, by Frederick E. Seyfarth, 
is reproduced here by courtesy of 
Row, Peterson and Company, 
publishers, of Evanston, Illinois, 
by whom it is copyrighted. 



utor of feature articles to the Bulletin as 
well as active in the Museum's relations 
with all types of publicity media — news- 
papers and press services, magazines, radio 
and television. She is a graduate (B.A.) of 
the University of Nebraska and was a post- 
graduate student at New York University. 



Audubon Lecture on January 8 

"Rocky Mountain Rambles" is the screen- 
tour to be presented by the Illinois Audubon 
Society in the James Simpson Theatre of 
the Museum on Sunday afternoon, January 
8, at 2 :30 o'clock. The lecturer, W. Emerson 
Scott, an authority on the natural history 
of the Rockies, is well-known for the excel- 
lence of his color motion-pictures. Seats in 
the reserved section of the auditorium are 
free to Members of the Museum and of the 
Illinois Audubon Society upon presentation 
of their membership cards. 

Next lecture in the Audubon series, "The 
Long Flight Back," will be given by Robert 
P. Allen on March 18. 



Technical Publications 

The following technical publications were 
issued recently by the Museum: 

Fieldiana: Botany, Vol. 24, Part II. Flora 
of Guatemala. Part II: Grasses of Guate- 
mala. By Jason R. Swallen. Bamboos. 
By F. A. McClure. November 10, 1955. 
390 pages, 113 illustrations. $6. 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 32. 
A New Species of Chondria with a Key 
to the Bornean Species (Coleoptera: Endo- 
mychidae). By H. F. Strohecker. No- 
vember 10, 1955. 2 pages. 10c. 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 33. Three 
New Bulbuls from Africa (Class Aves). 
By Austin L. Rand. November 10, 1955. 
4 pages. 10c. 



January, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



PageS 



SPIDER'S WEB: ENGINEERING FEAT AND ART CREATION 



By LILLIAN A. ROSS 

ASSOCIATE, INSECTS 

ARACHNE was the name of a mytho- 
Xi_ logical Lydian princess who was 
famous for her exquisite spinning. She 
became so proud of her work that she chal- 
lenged Athena, the Goddess of Weaving, to 
a contest. Athena accepted the challenge, 
but Arachne produced such beautiful 
tapestry that the jealous goddess destroyed 
the weaving and changed the princess into 
a spider, condemned to spin forever. From 
the unfortunate maiden's name is derived 
the scientific name for spiders and their kin 
— Arachnida. 

This ancient fable is proof of man's long- 
time knowledge of the symmetry and beauty 



Bridge-line 




Secondary foun- 
dation line 

Foundation line 



DIAGRAM OF AN ORB WEB 

of the webs spun by spiders. In the course 
of evolution, spiders have developed glands 
that produce a remarkable substance — their 
silk — and have adapted it to manifold uses. 
From it they make cocoons to protect their 
eggs and young. It forms for them a home, 
a shelter, a weapon to use in capturing their 
food, a protection from the winter cold, and 
a bridal veil that is woven in courtship. 
One of the most beautiful of their webs is 
the so-called orb, which is built by one 
group of spiders, the "orb- weavers," who 
take their name from their work. This 
circular silken web is both a home and 
a trap. It is often woven across a path 
because currents of air blow down that path, 
bringing the insects that are the prized food 
of the builder and inhabitant of the web. 
This builder is often hard to find, for it is 
a timid and wary creature. 

AN ENGINEERING MARVEL 

One of the familiar orb web spinners in the 
Chicago area is the yellow garden spider 
(Argiope aurantia). During July and August 
the Museum receives many inquiries about 
the large and brilliantly colored female, 
whose web is described in this article. 

The construction of the web is a remark- 
able feat of engineering skill. First of all, 



a silken framework must be provided, for 
the web will blow in the wind and rigid 
supports will not withstand the resulting 
stresses. So the spider raises her spinnerets 
(her silk-producers) in the direction of the 
wind and emits a thread that blows through 
the air until it adheres to some object — 
a branch, a leaf, or perhaps a post. Then 
she runs along the silk to the point of ad- 
herence, where she pulls the thread until it 
is tight and then fastens it. To and fro 
she runs on the line, adding another thread 
on each trip, until she is sure that this 
bridge-line (see drawing) is strong enough 
to serve its purpose. Then she adds the 
other foundation lines until she has com- 
pleted a frame, whose corners she then 
strengthens by adding supports (secondary 
foundation lines). Now she must build the 
radii. So back to the middle of the bridge- 
line she goes, dropping a thread (a diameter) 
to the bottom of the frame, where she fastens 
it. Then she runs up this line to a point 
bisecting it, where the middle of the web 
will be, and there she fastens another radius. 
As she spins out the silk for this one, she 
runs back up the first one, holding the 
thread free with her hind leg. At the top 
she moves along the bridge-line and fastens 
the new thread. She may even place it at 
a right angle to the first one by the simple 
expedient of running across the bridge-line 
and down the side of the foundation to the 
desired point, there pulling the radius tight 
and fastening it. Additional radii are built 
in a similar fashion, until the orb has been 
filled. Usually they are put in alternately 
on opposite sides of the web. Apparently 
the spider decides on the place for the next 
radius by checking the tension at the center 
of the orb. The radii are seldom equidistant, 
but the stress on each is the same. 

Now she strengthens all the radii by 
placing a few turns of spiral thread around 
the point where they intersect (the hub). 
As the line crosses each radius the spider 
fastens the two together for a short distance, 
so that the spiral line will be firmly attached. 
This thread forms the .notched zone. Then 
she goes to the outer margin of the web, 
spinning another spiral thread as she goes. 
This spiral is a temporary structure that is 
intended to hold the radii in place during 
the subsequent spinning. 

THE FINAL PRODUCT 

The important job is now at hand — the 
part for which all the other work has been 
a basis. The spider now produces a sticky 
thread and weaves it in another spiral. 
She begins at the outer edge of the web and 
goes around and around, spinning the viscid 
thread as she goes. The first lines may be 
short ones that fill in the corners of the web 
or they may be loops near the bottom that 
swing only part of the way around the circle; 



but after two or three of these have been 
made, she goes continuously around the web, 
attaching the thread to each radius. She 
may spin clockwise or counterclockwise. 
As she goes, she takes out the temporary 
spiral. Small silken remnants of it are often 
seen in the finished web. This sticky thread 
is a dry silk line evenly coated with a viscous 
film, but as she spins out the thread she 
alternately tightens and releases it so that 
the viscid coating forms round droplets. In 
weaving the spiral the spider first attaches 
the viscid thread to a radius and then grasps 
it with the claws of her hind leg as she swings 
across to the next radius. She usually 
leaves an open space between the spiral 
thread and the notched zone. 

Her work now finished, the spider returns 
to the center of the web. Treatment of the 
center varies with different species of orb- 
builders but the spider whose web-building 
has been described above usually covers the 
center with a sheet of silk and adds zigzag 
bands called stabilimenta that probably 
strengthen and stabilize the web. This 
spider hangs head down across the hub of 
the finished web, holding the silk with her 
claws. The web is, of course, a trap. As the 
great French naturalist, Fabre, said: "What 




'WON'T YOU STEP INTO MY PARLOR?' 

A grasshopper, to his eternal sorrow, has fallen for 

an old line. 



a work of art, just to catch a mess of flies." 
If an insect accidentally becomes entangled 
in the threads, the spider responds to the 
vibrations by running to the victim. A 
small intruder is quickly swathed in a bit of 
(Continued on page 5, column 1) 






Page k 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



January, 19 



DANGEROUS BIRDS 

By AUSTIN L. RAND 

CHIEF CURATOR OF ZOOLOGY 

FANS of our feathered friends wouldn't 
like it, but the fact remains: Some birds 
can be dangerous to human beings — they 
have caused damage and even death through 
physical violence. I don't want to be an 
alarmist, and I want to state emphatically 
that most birds are harmless. 

One day when a woman called me about 
birds that were nesting on a branch over her 
back door and I diagnosed them as robins, 
she wanted more information. These birds 
swept down at her children, she said. Was 
there a chance they would do the children 
harm? Of course I told her no. The 
possibility is so remote that one can almost 




completely disregard it. The same is true 
of most of our garden birds. A pair of 
grackles caused some alarm among our 
non-ornithological Museum workers by 
"dive-bombing" anyone who walked a cer- 
tain path near the Museum. But as soon as 
everyone realized that the birds were defend- 
ing their nearby nest and were not de- 
mented, the apprehension ceased. 

The screech owl is a little different. It 
makes its nest in a hole in a tree, and with a 
spacious suburban or rural garden you can 
hope to attract a pair by putting up a nest 
box. The owls may catch a few songbirds 
as well as insects and mice, but to me the 
mellow whistled trill or whining of the 
screech owl and the sight of these birds 
sitting upright or swooping from branch to 
branch is ample recompense for the other 
songsters they eat. 

MASKS FOR SAFETY 

If its larger cousin, the great-horned owl, 
is sometimes called the tiger of the woods, 
A. C. Bent, well-known ornithologist, says 
the screech owl, scarcely larger than a robin, 
should be called the wildcat, for it un- 
hesitatingly attacks birds larger than itself. 
Ordinarily inoffensive at the nest, there are 
records of its actively resenting intrusion. 
One of the most extreme cases was recorded 
by William Brewster, famous bird authority, 
as happening in Concord. The owls raised 
their brood near a house, and when people 
passed the owls' nesting place in the evening, 
the owls swooped down. Repeatedly people 
were struck on head and face, and the owls 
drew blood. This happened so often that 



people wore hoods or baseball masks when 
they went out in the evening. 

The great-horned owl is a magnificent 
creature, about two feet long, with long 
sharp talons. The tiger of the woodland 
feeds not only on rabbits and the like but 
also on such unsavory characters as skunks 
and such tough customers as alley cats that 
have run wild. 

When a person climbs to the owls' nest, 
which may be in an old crow's nest or on a 
ledge, the parent owls may sensibly flee and 
content themselves with hooting in the 
distance or clicking their mandibles together 
in anger. But now and then one finds 
a bolder pair, birds that won't give up 
without a struggle. Bent himself, climbing 
to a nest, had a great-horned owl give him 
a stunning blow behind the ear that knocked 
his hat a hundred feet away and gave him 
two ugly scalp-wounds. Deciding he wanted 
neither to be scalped nor knocked senseless 
to the ground, he retreated, leaving the owls 
the masters of the situation. 

SWANS BEAT INTRUDERS 

Many a farm lad has been run off by 
a gander. The swans that sail about so 
stately in the ponds in our parks and eat 
the bread thrown them can vent their 
displeasure at intrusions into their family 
life by beating the intruder with their wings. 
And this they can do vigorously enough to 
be dangerous to children. 

The whooping crane is perhaps best 
known for being almost extinct, as the dodo 
is best known for being completely extinct. 
When the swamp and prairies of the West 
and Midwest were turned into wheatfields 
and pastures, there was no room left for this 
tall, shy bird. Ernest Thompson Seton, 
the naturalist-artist, tells a story much dis- 
cussed in his early days in Manitoba when 
there were still whooping cranes to be 
hunted. A young Indian near Portage la 
Prairie went gunning for wild fowl in the 
spring. He crippled a white crane, and 
when he went up to the crane it struck its 
long, strong bill through the Indian's eye 
into his brain, killing him. Of course there 
were no witnesses, but searchers found the 
corpses of both man and bird and read the 
story from them. 

The celebrated English nature photo- 
grapher, Eric Hoskins, is minus the sight of 
one eye from an encounter at a nest of a 
tawny owl, a relative of our barred owl, 
which he was photographing in Wales. 
While Hoskins was reaching up to move 
a piece of his blind, the tawny owl swooped 
and hooked a talon into his eye. Despite 
his companion driving him at once to a 
hospital, some two hundred miles away, 
Hoskins lost the sight of his eye. 

The cassowary of New Guinea is an 
ostrich-like bird that may weigh up to 90 
pounds. Its inner toe is equipped with a 
stout, straight claw about three inches 



long, a claw that is such an effective weapi 
that when some people kill a cassowa 
they save these claws to use in tippii 
their arrows. When I shot my first ra 
sowary my native guide told me to a 
proach it with care, as a kick from a cri 
pled bird could be dangerous. They al 
told me that New Guinea villagers som 
times raised these birds, which becar 
ill-tempered with age, and that the kick 
these tame birds could be serious. 

MAN KILLED BY CASSOWARY 

Tom Gilliard, of the American Museu 
of Natural History, wrote of actually seeii 
in northeast New Guinea a tame cassowar 
which had killed one old man and injun 
two other people, make an attack on a fourt 
Having been released from its pen to ] 
photographed, the bird suddenly turne 
ran, jumped a fence, and, coming upc 
a native woman carrying a bag of swe 
potatoes, struck her twice and then co 
tinued running. One blow had driv< 
a claw an inch into her abdomen; the oth 
had cut her right upper arm to the bone. 

When I was in North New Guinea I hi 
a chance to see how a cassowary attack 
In a stockade I had a freshly caught youi 
cassowary about eighteen inches high ai 
a newly taken cuscus, or opossum. Th< 
were going round and round the stockat 
in opposite directions. Naturally, on ea< 
circle they met twice. And for a long tin 
every encounter was the same: the cusci 
went right ahead and the cassowary jump< 
up, striking with both feet, and fell over c 
its side. I formed a poor opinion of the ca 
sowary's mentality from seeing how loi 
the bird took to learn that this method 
handling a cuscus was not very satisfa 
tory. 

Don't think that these are every-dj 
occurrences. They're not. They're excej 
tions. But keep in mind that birds wil 
equipment to protect themselves may u: 
it. However, don't drive the screech ow 
from your garden just because they migl 
scratch you if you disturb their nest, an 
more than you would get rid of the famil 
tabby just because it might scratch you 
you pulled its tail. And don't bothi 
a cassowary any more than you wou] 
molest a "tame" bear. 



Dictionaries with three-dimensional illu 
trations in the form of actual specimens - 
that's what, in effect, the systematic exhibii 
of mammals in Hall 15 and of birds i 
Boardman Conover Hall (Hall 21) providi 
Study of these exhibits is an easy way t 
become familiar with animal characteristic 



How much do you know about the foo 
you eat? A survey of the food plants of th 
world and their products is presented b 
the exhibits in Hall 25. 



January, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



Daily Guide Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered daily 
except Sundays under the title "Highlights 
of the Exhibits." These tours are designed 
to give a general idea of the entire Museum 
and its scope of activities. They begin at 
2 P.M. on Monday through Friday and at 
2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 

Special tours on subjects within the range 
of the Museum exhibits are available Mon- 
days through Fridays for parties of ten or 
more persons. Requests for such service 
must be made at least one week in advance. 



4-H CLUBS PRESENT MERIT AWARD TO MUSEUM 



SPIDER'S WEB- 

(Continued from page 3^ 
silk. It may be bitten and consumed at 
once or trussed up in swathing bands and 
attached to the center of the web, there to 
await dinnertime. Larger prey may be 
handled more cautiously. 

If the web entraps a more formidable 
victim than the inhabitant can handle, she 
may drop out of the web to the ground or 
other convenient hiding place. In so doing 
she always drops head first, spinning 
a thread of silk as she falls. This is the 
so-called dragline, and on it she climbs to 
her home again when the danger has passed. 
If the prey is large but manageable the spider 
is merely very cautious: a quick bite, a retreat 
to safety, another quick bite .... When the 
venom has taken some effect, so that the 
victim is merely struggling rather feebly, it 
is turned around and around and wrapped 
in wide bands of silk so that it is completely 
covered. If it is large enough it may furnish 
sufficient food to satisfy the spider for many 
days. 

REMARKABLE STRENGTH 

Spider silk is an albuminoid protein of 
remarkable strength and elasticity. It is 
produced by several types of glands and 
emitted through the spinnerets, which 
usually lie at the end of the spider's ab- 
domen. Its tensile strength is said to be 
second only to that of fused quartz and its 
elasticity is so great that it can be stretched 
one-fifth of its length. The two varieties of 
silk differ in these qualities; the viscid silk, 
for example, is much more elastic and less 
strong than the other type. Its elasticity, 
no doubt, is an adjustment to its function, 
as the spiral thread must yield to greater 
impacts than the other type. The finest 
single threads of silk are only about one- 
millionth of an inch in thickness. 

Silk is produced by all spiders, although 
they are not all equally dependent on it. 
But they have put it to many and varied 
uses and it has probably been largely re- 
sponsible for their survival over many 
millions of years. 




Each year the Museum is host to more 
than a thousand 4-H Club delegates, ' boys 
and girls sent to Chicago from farms all over 
the United States and Canada. In recog- 
nition of the institution's thirty-five years of 
support, the National Congress of 4-H Clubs 
recently presented the Museum with the 
4-H Club Donor Merit Award. Above, 
Stanley Field (center right), President of the 
Museum, accepts the award from G. L. 



Noble, Director of the 4-H Club Nationa 
Committee on Boys and Girls Club Work. 
Others in the group are Kenneth H. Ander- 
son, Associate Director of the 4-H National 
Committee (extreme left), and Dr. Clifford 
C. Gregg, Director of the Museum (extreme 
right). During the National 4-H Club Con- 
gress in November, hundreds of club mem- 
bers were taken on special tours of the 
Museum. 



MUSEUM AMBASSADRESS 
TOURS N.Y. STATE 

The story of the natural sciences, and in 
particular of Chicago Natural History 
Museum's role in the field, will be told to 
some 125 high school and "prep" school 
student groups throughout New York state 
on a three-month lecture tour by Miss 
Harriet Smith of the Raymond Foundation 
staff, beginning early in January. As on 
a previous tour in 1951-52, Miss Smith will 
be on leave from her duties at the Museum to 
fulfill this "on-loan" engagement to the 
School Assembly Service lecture agency. 
Her lectures will be illustrated with a spe- 
cially edited version of the color motion 
picture "Through These Doors" made by 
John W. Moyer, Chief of the Museum's 
Motion Picture Division. Miss Smith's 
talks will replace the sound track ordinarily 
used, and new sequences will be interpolated 
in the film. The tour is being undertaken 
both as an educational project and as an 
extension of Museum public relations. 



Like a scene from Biblical history is the 
restoration of a gateway of the ancient city 
of Kish to be seen in Hall K. 



The wave of popularity that has brought 
parakeets into so many homes in recent 
years lends special interest to an exhibit of 
parakeets and parrots of many varieties in 
Boardman Conover Hall (Hall 21). 



LAST CHANCE TO ENTER 
NATURE PHOTOGRAPHS 

Closing date for entries in the Eleventh 
Chicago International Exhibition of Nature 
Photography is January 16. Prospective 
contestants are urged to send their prints 
and color slides to the Museum at once 
because the judges cannot consider entries 
received after the deadline. 

Prize winning and other selected photo- 
graphic prints will be exhibited in Stanley 
Field Hall from February 1 through 
February 26. All accepted color slides will 
be shown by projection on the screen in the 
James Simpson Theatre on two Sunday 
afternoons, February 12 and February 19, 
at 2:30 o'clock. The show is jointly spon- 
sored by the Nature Camera Club of 
Chicago and the Museum. 

Entries, both in the division of prints and 
the division of slides, must qualify under 
one of three classifications: (1) Animal life, 
(2) Plant Life, or (3) General (including 
scenic views, etc.). Except for special 
prizes awarded by the Photographic Society 
of America, a full and equal group of medals 
and ribbons is offered in each classification 
of each division. Detailed information is 
given in the official entry forms that are 
available by request to the Museum. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



January, 1956 



THE PAPAW, OUR LOCAL 

By JOHN W. THIERET 

CURATOR OF ECONOMIC BOTANY 

THE PAPAW, with its seemingly exotic 
foliage, flowers, and fruits, reminds some 
of a plant displaced from the tropics. And 
this it has been called, for of all the members 
of the Custard Apple family — including the 
bearers of such fruits as the cherimoya, 
sweetsop, soursop, and custard apple — the 
papaw alone is a venturer from tropical and 
subtropical regions. But no alien this, not- 
withstanding its host of cousins in warmer 
latitudes. On the contrary, its maroon 



'TROPICAL' FRUIT 




THE AMERICAN PAPAW-A FRUITING BRANCH 

The drooping leaves, often nearly a foot long, and the clustered fruits make the 

papaw one of autumn's memorable sights. The specimen here shown was 

collected near Chesterton, Indiana. A life-like model of a fruiting branch is 

exhibited in Martin A. and Carrie Ryerson Hall (Plant Life, Hall 29). 



flowers with the odor of over-ripe straw- 
berries, its large leaves, and its pendulous 
clusters of heavy fruits are an integral and 
familiar part of the landscape in much of 
the eastern United States in the river bot- 
toms and rich woods where this singular 
species dwells. 

The distribution of the papaw in relation 
to the rest of the Custard Apple family is 
paralleled by a number of other temperate 
United States plants that are members of 
notably tropical groups. As examples might 
be cited our catalpa, trumpet-creeper, and 
cross-vine of the flamboyant Bignonia 
family; meadow beauty of the Melastoma 
family; the American persimmon, cousin of 
the ebonies; and the buckthorns of the Sapo- 
dilla family. These and others are con- 
sidered remnants of a once luxurious sub- 
tropical flora that extended as far north as 
Alaska. Since that distant age the climate 
changed and became colder. Many plant 



groups — cycads, figs, breadfruits, rosewoods, 
palms — disappeared entirely from what is 
now temperate North America, surviving 
only in warmer areas nearer the equator. 
Others were not completely wiped out; they 
left in the now cooler regions one or several 
representatives that could successfully adapt 
to the changed conditions. This is the story 
that present-day distribution patterns and 
the fossil record reveal to us. 

Long before the advent of Europeans in 
the New World the papaw was known to 
the Indians who, along with various wild 
animals — opossums, 
raccoons, squirrels, 
and skunks — relished 
the saccharine fruit. 
In the Mississippi 
Valley just over four 
hundred years ago, the 
followers of De Soto 
were the first white 
men to notice the pa- 
paw. In their journal 
they mention its "very 
good smell and . . . 
excellent taste." 
Nearly two centuries 
elapse before we hear 
of it again. In 1736 
the plant was intro- 
duced into cultivation 
by Europeans who 
brought seeds to Eng- 
land. The first illus- 
tration of the papaw 
appeared 18 years 
later in Catesby's 
Natural History of 
Carolina (1754). On 
the return journey of 
Lewis and Clark, in 
the early 19th century, 
the explorers found 
the fruit a welcome 
supplement to their meager fare as did, at 
a still later date, the Kansas pioneers who 
subsisted partly on pecans and papaws in 
times of crop failure. 

The common name papaw originated 
apparently from a fancied resemblance of 
our fruit to that excellent dessert fruit, the 
papaw of the tropics, better known in the 
United States as the papaya. The French 
New World colonists called the papaw 
"asiminier" — a gallicized form of the Indian 
name "assimin" — whence is derived the 
name of the genus to which the plant be- 
longs, Asimina. There are eight species of 
Asimina, seven of which are confined to the 
southeastern United States, mostly in 
Florida. Our plant, Asimina triloba, ranges 
from Florida to Texas and as far north as 
the southern Great Lakes area. In the 
Chicago region, native stands of the papaw 
are found in several spots, including Black 
Partridge Woods, Indiana Dunes State Park, 



Pilcher Park, and, most appropriately, in 
Paw Paw Woods. 

The papaw rises sometimes to a height of 
fifty feet and develops a trunk exceeding 
two feet in diameter, although the plant 
is usually a smaller tree or a shrub. Because 
of its suckering habit it is commonly found 
in clumps or thickets. In days gone by, 
some of these, particularly in the Mississippi 
Valley, were many acres in extent. The 
wood of the papaw is greenish-yellow, light, 
soft, brittle, coarse-textured, and has no 
uses. The inner bark, stripped off in early 
spring, has been used for weaving fiber-cloth, 
for making nets, and for stringing fish. 

YELLOW FORM PREFERRED 

The papaw flowers in the spring while its 
leaves are yet young and covered with rusty 
down. The stigmas mature sometimes long 
before the pollen is shed, and, as a result, 
the early-opening flowers set no fruit. The 
fruits, which may weigh up to a pound and 
attain a length of over five inches, are borne 
either singly or in clusters and change from 
green to brown or nearly black as they 
mature. When they ripen — from August 
to November, depending on the locality — 
the fruits contain a creamy pulp surrounding 
several large, flattened, brown seeds. There 
are, it seems, two rather distinct forms of 
the papaw: one, bearing white-fleshed fruits 
said to be of insipid to even disagreeable 
flavor; the other, more frequent, bearing 
yellow-fleshed fruits that occasionally are of 
an excellence that inspires some papaw 
lovers to remark that this is the most 
delicious fruit known to man. 

Compared with the temperate and tropical 
fruits that are familiar in the northern 
states, the papaw is relatively rich in nu- 
tritive material. The fruit is noticeably 
high in protein. In spite of its food value 
and the pleasing texture and taste of the 
better varieties, the papaw remains little 
known and used except by rural people. 
It is only rarely seen in the markets of our 
larger cities. 

Of the various ways of using the fruit, one 
author has written: "It makes a splendid 
custard pie. There is no finer dessert than 
papaw eaten with cream and sugar. It is 
used to make beer the same as the persim- 
mon by putting the fruit in a jar, mashing 
it, and putting water on it and letting it 
stand until fermented. It also answers to 
make pudding just the same as persimmon 
pudding is made. It is also said that brandy 
equal to peach brandy is made of papaws. 
Marmalade which is equal to that made of 
pears or peaches may be made of papaws. 
The custard [pulp] may be spread on a 
board and dried like pumpkin leather." 

All this, of course, is fine, but what can 
compare to a ripe papaw, just picked from 
among the yellowed leaves on a frosty 
autumn day and eaten in the woodland. 
It is then that James Whitcomb Riley's 



January, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



words in Hoosier dialect are recalled perhaps 
most vividly: 

"And sich pop-paws! Lumps o' raw 
Gold and green, — jes' oozy th'ough 

With ripe yaller — like you've saw 
Custard-pie with no crust to." 

NEGLECTED BY FRUIT GROWERS 

Although its cultivation and improvement 
have been repeatedly urged, the papaw 
continues to be a horticultural Cinderella. 
There are few papaw orchards, perhaps 
a result of the fact that little is known 
about the cultural requirements and re- 
sponse of the species. The small number 
of attempts that have been made in hybridi- 
zation and selection have had promising 
results. Several of the finer varieties have 
been named and propagated. Crosses have 
been made between these varieties and 
between our plant and other species of 
Asimina in efforts to improve the fruit. 
Those who have faith in the economic and 
gustatory possibilities of the papaw point 
out that even in the wild state it can produce 
fruits that compare favorably with our long- 
cultivated Old and New World fruits. Thus, 
would not some attention from horticul- 
turists result perhaps in the development 
of distinctly superior papaws? 

As is the case with so many of our de- 
serving native species, the papaw has been 
little used as an ornamental plant, although 
it has much to recommend it. It is notably 
free from diseases and pests. It may be 
raised fairly easily from seed, or seedlings a 




FLOWERS OF THE PAPAW 
The blossoms, up to two inches across, are green 
when newly opened, but soon change to brown and 
finally to maroon. These figures are reproduced 
from Charles Sprague Sargent's "Silva of North 
America" (1891). 

foot or less in height may be transplanted 
from the woods. When grown from seed, 
the plant may take eight or more years to 
begin to fruit, although the fruiting of three- 
year-old specimens has been reported. The 
papaw's handsome leaves, its attractive 
though somewhat inconspicuous flowers, a"nd 
its curious, clustered fruits make it a 



horticultural novelty. In nature it occurs 
as an undergrowth plant, receiving shade 
and protection from wind. This suggests 
that in cultivation a sheltered position 
may be more to its liking than one in the 
open. 

The American papaw is a species that 
deserves increased recognition and use, both 
as an ornamental and, of more significance, 
as a fruit tree. Perhaps someday it will be 
a plant of considerable economic importance. 
This is the end toward which papaw en- 
thusiasts and breeders are striving. 



Books 



(All books reviewed in the Bulletin are 
available in The Book Shop of the Museum. 
Mail orders accompanied by remittance in- 
cluding postage are promptly filled.) 

THE STORY OF MAN. By Carleton S. 
Coon. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 
437 pages, 32 plates, 54 line drawings, 10 
maps. $6.75. 

Books come and go, but here is one that 
will remain with us. The title is forthright 
and simple and so are the language and 
style. Dr. Coon undertakes to describe the 
main events of human history "from the 
time man appeared on the face of the earth 
until the present moment, when he has the 
power to destroy it." But this is not the 
ordinary dreary history. It is a sprightly 
one, as a glance at some of the chapter head- 
ings shows: "The Earliest Men," "Wheels, 
Metal, and Writing," "A Vision of Para- 
dise." 

The Story of Man begins about 700,000 
years ago and follows the adventures of our 
ancestors to the present time. For the pur- 
poses of his book, Dr. Coon divides his 
material into four major phases: 

The first of these deals with the biolog- 
ical phase of man's history. Because he 
possessed a superior capacity for culture, 
man had a great advantage over animals. 
Before the first phase ended, man had learn- 
ed to make tools, probably to speak, and 
to keep warm with fire. 

During the second phase of man's history, 
beginning about 35,000 years ago, man 
cooked food, made warm clothing, migrated 
into hitherto unoccupied regions (the Arctic 
and sub- Arctic and the New World), in- 
vented the bow, and domesticated the dog. 

In the third phase, man domesticated all 
the barnyard animals that we know today, 
began to farm, invented pottery and writing, 
worked metals, and then moved swiftly on 
to other advances — money, cannon, print- 
ing, deep-water ships, coke, steam engines. 

Man now stands on the threshold of the 
fourth phase of his history. At this time 
the trend toward increasing differentiation 



between cultures has turned toward the 
direction of global cultural uniformity. 

Perhaps one example of the kinds of ideas 
that Dr. Coon puts forward will entice read- 
ers of the Bulletin to read The Story of 
Man. In Greek times and during the early 
centuries of the Christian era, a "school" 
consisted of one man who taught all subjects 
to the students of the day. Gradually it 
dawned on men that the fields of human 
knowledge were becoming too vast for one 
man to comprehend. A division took place, 
and universities came into existence. A 
student could now learn geography from one 
professor, law from a second, and mathe- 
matics from a third. Thus it now was pos- 
sible for scholars to specialize, to conduct 
experiments, to do research. A new source 
of energy was discovered, not by accident 
but by objective research. This new 
source of energy was the correct formula for 
gunpowder that would explode instead of 
merely fizzling. 

As a result of objective research and 
increase in consumption of energy through 
improvements in furnaces and harnessing 
water and wind power, three new inventions 
came into being: ocean-sailing ships, print- 
ing, and banking. These inventions united, 
as never before, all the independent and 
ancient civilizations and brought them into 
the orbit of western Europe. Gunpowder 
enabled the Turks to capture Constanti- 
nople, thus blocking trade routes from 
Europe to India and the Far East. Marine 
architects then came forward and designed 
ships that could cross vast oceans. The 
academic division of labor also stimulated 
another great advance in communication — 
the invention of printing. Now thousands 
of ordinary people, merchants, and artisans 
learned to read and write. Communica- 
tion could now take place among thousands 
of people who never saw one another. 
Economic and commercial institutions estab- 
lished trade relations with people of dis- 
tant countries. Traders and manufacturers 
needed capital, and banks were formed to 
accommodate them. Thus a chain of 
events brought about vast unthought-of 
changes and united the parts of the world 
as never before. 

Dr. Coon has selected his material with 
such care that the reader never feels be- 
wildered even though the author takes him 
on many absorbing excursions. The author 
wisely resorts to speculation and imagi- 
nation whenever necessary, but he plainly 
labels them as his personal guesses. His 
convictions he has stated with strength. 

Because all of us are vitally interested in 
our futures, we can read this book with 
profit, enjoyment, and optimism. 

Paul S. Martin 
Chief Curator of Anthropology 



Saturday afternoon lectures and films will 
be given at the Museum in March and April. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



January, 1956 



A YOUNG MARCO POLO BEGINS MUSEUM JOURNEY 




STAFF NOTES 



Jimmy Pavitt, 9, of St. Louis, takes off on 
his own private expedition! Here he em- 
barks on Museum Traveler's Journey No. 4 
to visit toys of other lands and cultures. 
Pausing before the special toy exhibit in 
Stanley Field Hall, Jimmy answers the first 
query on his Museum Traveler's question- 
naire before proceeding to ancient Baby- 
lonia, modern Malaya, China, and our own 



Plains and Southwest Indian country for 
information about exotic toys. After filling 
in all the answers called for, Jimmy will turn 
his questionnaire in at the Museum where it 
will be checked for correctness. Successful 
completion of three additional journeys will 
entitle Jimmy to an award designating him 
as an Official Traveler of Chicago Natural 
History Museum. 



NEW MEMBERS 

(November 16 to December 15) 

Associate Members 

Thomas Boal, John M. Coates, Dennis 
De Witt 

Non-Resident Associate Member 

Mrs. Oma M. Bradley 

Annual Members 

Miles L. Abel, William P. Ayers, Harold 
Barclay, Horace G. Barden, W. E. Bikle, 
Miss Beryl Ann Brownell, James L. Cal- 
houn, John Noble Campbell, John I. Den- 
nehy, Edward F. Donham, William M. 
Doty, Albert J. Epson, Joseph Epstein, 
S. L. Fee, Jacob M. Fishman, Louis Fish- 
man, Miss Grace S. Flagg, Dean D. Francis, 
Fred. W. Frank, Leon J. Gell, Eugene G. 
Hart, Dr. Helen Heinen, James V. Insolia, 
Dr. Michael C. Kessler, Karl N. Llewellyn, 
Marshall Malina, Edwin H. McGrew, Wes- 
ley C. Miller, Walter A. Mooney, Charles 
F. Naser, Erik Nilsson, Harold N. Payne, 
L. W. Porter, Mrs. M. Ann Reiff, C. H. 
Rosier, Miss Nina E. Schlatter, Robert B. 
Stitt, Newton E. Turney, William Wald, 
Mrs. Nelson C. White, Mrs. Jean Woollett 



For authentic natural-history books con- 
sult The Museum Book Shop. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of principal gifts re- 
ceived during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology: 

From: Dr. Henry Field, Coconut Grove, 
Fla. — 10 plaster casts of seals, Pakistan; 
Mrs. Harry W. Getz, Moline, 111.— 2 Nava- 
ho blankets, southwestern United States 

Department of Botany: 

From: Karl Bartel, Chicago — Mimosa 
pudica; Florida State Board of Conserva- 
tion, St. Petersburg, Fla. — 2 aquatic phaner- 
ogams; Robert Sokal, Chicago — 32 plants, 
southeastern United States; Floyd A. Swink, 
Chicago — Populus canescens; University of 
Southern Illinois, Carbondale — 6 Andro- 
pogon Elliottii 

Department of Zoology: 

From: R. J. Fleetwood, Cocorro, New 
Mexico — 2 snakes; Dr. J. L. Harrison, Kuala 
Lumpur, Malaya — 64 bats; Dr. John R. 
Hendrickson, Singapore, Malaya — fish speci- 
men; Harry Hoogstraal and Lt. Col. Robert 
Traub, Cairo, Egypt, and Kuala Lumpur, 
Malaya — 117 fleas on slides, Yemen, Egypt; 
Dr. Henry Howden, Knoxville, Tenn. — 
5 scarab beetles, United States; Lt. Comdr. 
Don C. Lowrie, San Francisco — 3 frogs, 
5 lizards, 2 snakes, Riu Kiu Islands; Dr. 
Frederick J. Medem, Colombia — 61 reptiles 



Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of 
Anthropology, attended the recent annual 
meeting in Boston of the American Anthro- 
pological Association and the meeting of the 
executive committee of the Society for 
American Archaeology. He was guest of 
honor at the Twenty-fifth Anniversary 
Luncheon of the Social Sciences Division of 
the University of Chicago. Other Museum 
staff members who participated in the 
celebration were Dr. Donald Collier, Cu- 
rator of South American Archaeology and 
Ethnology, who was in the academic pro- 
cession; George I. Quimby, Curator of 
North American Archaeology and Ethnol- 
ogy; Miss Elaine Bluhm, Assistant in 
Archaeology; and Evett D. Hester, Thomas 
J. Dee Fellow in Anthropology .... Two 
members of the Museum staff recently pub- 
lished popular articles in national maga- 
zines: Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, Curator 
of the Phanerogamic Herbarium, gives an 
account of his expedition to the "lost world" 
of Venezuela in the November issue of 
Natural History and Philip Hershkovitz, 
Curator of Mammals, is author of "Know 
Your Rabbits" in the December issue of 
Sports Afield .... A paper on cave fishes, 
prepared jointly by Loren P. Woods, Cu- 
rator of Fishes, and Dr. Robert F. Inger, 
Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles, was 
read before a meeting of the zoological 
section of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science at Atlanta last 
month . . . . D. Dwight Davis, Curator of 
Vertebrate Anatomy, lectured recently on 
"The Biology of the Desert" before students 
of North Central College, Naperville, Illinois 
.... Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator of Insects, 
and Henry S. Dybas, Associate Curator of 
Insects, represented the Museum at the 
annual meeting of the Entomological Society 
of America in Cincinnati . . . Dr. Theodor 
Just, Chief Curator of Botany, spoke on 
"Cycads, Living and Fossil" at a recent 
meeting of the Chicago Ornithological 
Society. 



and amphibians, 13 mammals; Museo de 
Historia Natural, Montevideo, Uruguay — 4 
fresh- water clams; Oriental Institute, 
Chicago — 43 lots of ectoparasites, 208 land 
shells, 84 mammals, Iraq, Iran, and Leb- 
anon; Dr. Alexander Sokoloff, Chicago — 
2 snakes, Indiana; Lt. Col. Robert Traub, 
Kuala Lumpur, Malaya — 19 slides of fleas, 
Africa, Madagascar, South America, New- 
Guinea; Fraser Walsh, San Francisco — 
8 dragonflies, 7 butterflies and moths, 10 
grasshoppers, Formosa; Loren P. Woods, 
Homewood, 111. — 4 bats, Indiana; Donald J. 
Daleske, Chicago — 19 fishes, North and 
South Korea; W. E. Eigsti, Hastings, Neb. 
— 41 insects; Dr. Howard Gloyd, Chicago 
— snake, Riu Kiu Islands; Dr. Robert F. 
Inger, Homewood, 111. — 400 fishes, Wyo- 
ming and South Dakota 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



RULLETIN 

U Vol.27,No.2-Februaiy-1956 

Chicago Natural 
History Mus e um 



\ . 




11th Chicago International 

Nature Photo Exhibit 

February 1—26 




Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



February, 1956 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

t Armour Henry P. Ism am 

Sewell L. Avery Hughston M. McBain 

Wv. McCormick Blair William H. Mitchell 

Walther Buchen John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Walter J. Cummings Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

Samuel Insull, Jr. John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Hughston M. McBain Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Mdllar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin C*te/ Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Jane Rockwell 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



Museum Expeditions — I9S6 . . . 

RANGE OF EXPLORATIONS: 
MILWAUKEE TO MINDANAO 

FROM MILWAUKEE, Manitowoc, and 
Muskegon in a Great Lakes archae- 
ological survey to far-off Mindanao in the 
Philippines for zoological collections, Mu- 
seum explorers will range over many parts 
of the world in 1956 on expeditions with 
widely varied objectives. Outstanding on 
the list are excavations in Peru to uncover 
prehistoric cities that flourished before and 
during the time of the Incas and penetration 
of the jungles of Borneo in small boats and 
afoot to collect reptiles and other fauna. 

The Archaeological Expedition to Peru, 
to be led by Dr. Donald Collier, Curator of 
South American Archaeology and Eth- 
nology, will enplane for Lima early in Febru- 
ary, where field work will continue for about 
seven months. Curator Collier will be 
assisted by Don Thompson, a Harvard 
graduate-student in archaeology, and ad- 
ditional helpers will be recruited in Peru. 
The expedition, which is financed by a grant 
awarded by the National Science Founda- 
tion, will excavate sites in the Casma Valley 
near the coast of Peru, about two hundred 
miles north of Lima in search of material 
for exhibits and for research purposes. 
Collier plans eventually to use the results 



of his studies as the basis of a publication 
on the prehistoric growth of urban life. 

BY CANOE AND AFOOT 

The Zoological Expedition to Borneo, 
which will be led by Dr. Robert F. Inger, 
Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles, will 
get under way late in March. First flying 
to Singapore, Dr. Inger will there organize 
for six months of intensive field work deep 
in the interior of northern Borneo. With 
Malayan aides he will travel on foot and by 
motorboat and canoe to make a representa- 
tive collection of the island's reptiles, am- 
phibians, and fresh-water fishes. 

Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of 
Anthropology, will, as in all its past seasons, 
lead the Archaeological Expedition to the 
Southwest, his principal associate again 
being Dr. John B. Rinaldo, Assistant Cu- 
rator of Archaeology. Several other per- 
sons will accompany the expedition. This, 
the expedition's 22nd season, is the occasion 
for moving the base camp into new ter- 
ritory. In the first nine seasons excavations 
were made in southwestern Colorado and in 
the next twelve in New Mexico, with a brief 
sortie into Arizona in 1955. The expedi- 
tion's work now will be moved entirely to 
an area near Showlow in east-central 
Arizona. Because of the transfer of the 
scene of operations, the first season's work 
in the new area will be largely reconnais- 
sance, and if use of an airplane can be 
arranged, aerial surveys will be made. 

Reference in the opening paragraph to 
Milwaukee, Manitowoc, and Muskegon in- 
dicates only a small part of the territory 
to be surveyed by George I. Quimby, Cu- 
rator of North American Archaeology and 
Ethnology, who will begin field work for 
a study of the paleogeography, archaeology, 
and ethnology of the western Great Lakes 
region, centering upon the area within the 
drainage basin of Lake Michigan but in- 
cluding regions bordering on Lake Superior 
and Lake Huron. His studies will embrace 
a period beginning about 10,000 B.C. and 
continuing to a.d. 1800. 

BIRDS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Mindanao, also mentioned in the first 
paragraph, refers to the continuance of 
zoological collecting, principally of birds, by 
an expedition begun in the Philippines 
several years ago by Dr. D. S. Rabor, Field 
Associate, who will work in the Mindanao 
area and other regions. Dr. Robert L. 
Fleming, another Field Associate, will con- 
tinue collecting birds in Nepal, where he has 
been for several years. 

Dr. Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator of 
Geology, will return to Central America to 
continue studies of volcanoes. Dr. Rainer 
Zangerl, Curator of Fossil Reptiles, and Dr. 
Eugene S. Richardson, Jr., Curator of Fossil 
Invertebrates, will go for a month in the 
summer to the salt marshes of southern 



■THIS MONTH'S COVBR- 



Our cover picture, entitled 
"Mother and Child," one of sev- 
eral thousand entries for the 11th 
Chicago International Exhibition 
of Nature Photography to be held 
at the Museum February 1 
through February 26, was made 
by J. Musser Miller, of La Grange, 
Illinois. This interesting animal 
duo represents the white-mouthed 
langur, native to the high forests 
of Burma, Siam, and Indochina. 
Langurs, or leaf-eating monkeys, 
are the common simians of India 
and southeastern Asia. Their 
slender bodies and limbs, their 
very long tails used for balancing, 
and their long hands curved like 
hooks for grasping enable them to 
run and leap through the trees 
with exceptional speed and agil- 
ity. They seldom descend to the 
ground except for water and to 
raid cultivated fields. 

The photo contest and exhibit 
are jointly sponsored by the Na- 
ture Camera Club of Chicago and 
the Museum. 



Louisiana. There they will study recent 
sediments for comparison with the Mecca, 
Indiana, black shales and fossils that have 
been their major project for the past two 
years. Curator Richardson will also make 
several short trips to Will and Grundy 
counties in Illinois to study distribution of 
fossils in spoil heaps of strip mines. 

MARINE LIFE IN BAHAMAS 

Dr. Fritz Haas, Curator of Lower In- 
vertebrates, will spend May and June in 
Florida and at the biological station in 
Bimini, the Bahamas, collecting and study- 
ing specimens of marine life as the first step 
in a long-range program of preparation of 
exhibits for a hall of marine invertebrate 
life. 

William D. Turnbull, Assistant Curator 
of Fossil Vertebrates, and Orville L. Gilpin, 
Chief Preparator of Fossils, will work in the 
late summer and early autumn in the 
Washakie Basin of Wyoming. Their ex- 
pedition has as its goal faunal collections 
from each level of the Washakie formation. 

A number of staff members will be engaged 
in a variety of projects classified as field trips 
rather than major expeditions. Rupert L. 
Wenzel, Curator of Insects, will collect 
histerid beetles and other insects in the Cum- 
berland Mountains of eastern Tennessee. 
Henry S. Dybas, Associate Curator of In- 
sects, will collect samples of microscopic 
fauna in northeastern areas of the United 
States. Loren P. Woods, Curator of Fishes, 
(Continued on page S, column 1) 



February, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page S 



BEST EN NATURE PHOTOS ON EXHIBITION THIS MONTH 



FEBRUARY is Nature-Photo Month at 
the Museum. 
From February 1 through February 26 
several hundred photographs of animal life, 
plant life, and scenery judged to be the best 
from among several thousand submitted by 
contestants all over the world will be dis- 
played in Stanley Field Hall. Several hun- 
dred color-transparencies will be projected in 
James Simpson Theatre of the Museum at 



bition of Nature Photography, an annual 
event sponsored jointly by the Nature 
Camera Club of Chicago and the Museum. 
This exhibit, the largest in the world 
devoted exclusively to nature photography 
and one of the largest photography exhibits 
of any sort, is the result of much work by 
enthusiastic members of the Nature Camera 
Club as well as the effort of hundreds of 
amateur and professional photographers 




•JUNIPER'- AN ENTRY IN NATURE PHOTO EXHIBIT 
Submitted in General Division (landscapes, etc.) by Gertrude L. Pool of Palo Alto, California. 



2:30 o'clock on two Sunday afternoons, 
February 12 and February 19. These three 
events — the Stanley Field Hall exhibit of 
photographic prints and the two theatre 
showings of color transparencies — comprise 
the Eleventh Chicago International Exhi- 



submitting pictures. Camera club members 
have devoted hours in evening and weekend 
sessions to processing the thousands of en- 
tries and doing all the clerical tasks required 
to safeguard the pictures and assure even- 
tual return to their owners. Five judges 



EXPEDITIONS- 

(Continued from page 2) 

will engage in research on West Coast fishes 
at Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Stanford 
University. Dr. Robert H. Denison, Cu- 
rator of Fossil Fishes, will collect Devonian 
fishes in quarries in northern Michigan and 
will prospect in New York state. Dr. John 
W. Thieret, Curator of Economic Botany, 
will collect economic plants of the Midwest 
for the study collections and for revision of 
the economic botany exhibits. 

George Langford, Curator of Fossil Plants, 
will make a field trip with Chief Preparator 
Gilpin to Lower Eocene and Upper Cre- 
taceous clays of Alabama and Mississippi 



and to Pennsylvanian deposits of Will 
County, Illinois, with Dr. and Mrs. R. H. 
Whitfield, Associates in the Division of 
Fossil Plants. Miss Elaine Bluhm, Assistant 
in Archaeology, will continue her archae- 
ological investigations in the Chicago area, 
conducted during the past two years in 
association with members of the Earth 
Science Club of Northern Illinois. Taxi- 
dermist Carl W. Cotton will spend some 
time in February at the American Museum 
of Natural History in New York and the 
Smithsonian Institution in Washington, 
D.C., for consultations with colleagues in 
the taxidermic arts and for studies of new 
exhibition techniques that may be applicable 
to future work in this Museum. 



in day-long sessions have performed the 
difficult task of carefully appraising each of 
the thousands of pictures submitted and 
finally selecting those worthy of display and 
those to be awarded medals or ribbons. 
This board of judges was composed of 
William J. Beecher, Naturalist of the Cook 
County Forest Preserve District; Philip 
Hershkovitz, Curator of Mammals at the 
Museum; John W. Mulder, Ranger-Natura- 
list of the National Park Service; and 
George W. Blaha and George M. Wood, 
well-known in Chicago for their own work 
with cameras. 

Each of the two divisions in the exhibit, 
prints and color slides, is divided into three 
classifications: animal life, plant life and 
general (scenery, clouds, geological forma- 
tions, etc.). First prize in each classification 
of each division is a medal; in addition, 
ribbons are awarded to many others as 
honorable-mention awards. The Nature 
Division of the Photographic Society of 
America also awards two special prizes for 
the best photographic work using comple- 
mentary colors and adjacent colors. Names 
of winners are placed on a bronze plaque, 
contributed by Mrs. Myrtle R. Walgreen, 
herself a camera enthusiast and an active 
member of the Nature Camera Club. A 
catalogue with reproductions of award- 
winning photographs will be published by 
the camera club. This Bulletin went to 
press before the list of winners was available, 
but their names will appear in the next 
issue. 

With this year's exhibit now ready for 
inspection by the public, the contestants 
have already been notified of their success 
or failure, and many are doubtlessly think- 
ing of what to do for next year's nature- 
photo contest and show. 



MUSEUM OFFICERS 
RE-ELECTED 

All officers of the Museum who served in 
1955 were re-elected for 1956 at the annual 
meeting of the Board of Trustees held on 
January 16. With the new term, Stanley 
Field has now begun his forty-eighth year 
as President. The others retained in office 
are: Marshall Field, First Vice-President; 
Hughston M. McBain, Second Vice-Presi- 
dent; Joseph N. Field, Third Vice-President; 
Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer; Dr. Clifford 
C. Gregg, Director and Secretary; and John 
R. Millar, Assistant Secretary. 

President Field's tenure of office corre- 
sponds with the most active period of ex- 
pansion and development of the Museum in 
expeditions, in scope of exhibits, and in ex- 
tent of research and publications. Plans for 
the present building were brought to fruition 
after his accession to the presidency. 



Page 1> 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



February, 1956 



COLLECTION OF BEETLES ARRIVES FROM VIENNA 



By RUPERT L. WENZEL 

CURATOR OF INSECTS 

DURING the first week of January, the 
staff of the Division of Insects wel- 
comed a present that had arrived on the 
last working-day of December, a little too 
late to be included in the Christmas cele- 



Dr. Eduard Knirsch, a Viennese dentist 
who was an amateur coleopterist (beetle 
specialist) and who built up significant gen- 
eral and specialized collections of beetles. 
One of these collections was accumulated by 
Dr. Karl Brancsik, of Trencsen (later in 
Czechoslovakia), who had been an adviser 




MORE THAN A TON OF BEETLES ARRIVES 

Much manpower is required to move huge packing-case from Vienna onto Museum's receiving platform, 

an elevator that carries shipment from outdoors into basement freight room. The crate, 6 by 6 by 7 feet, 

contains approximately 119,000 specimens. These include both European and worldwide collections. 



bration but in time for the New Year's 
greeting. The gift — from the Museum's 
Board of Trustees — was contained in a large 
packing case, 6 by 6 by 7 feet and weighing 
2,600 pounds, large even by museum stand- 
ards, shipped from Vienna, Austria. The 
case contained a collection — more properly, 
two collections — of approximately 119,000 
beetles. Its arrival marked the successful 
culmination of negotiations and plans begun 
more than six months previously, but that 
had their origin in plans and hopes dating 
back a good many years. 

In the hectic week that followed the ar- 
rival and unpacking of the collection, five 
questions were so repeatedly asked that it 
seems desirable to answer them here, at 
least in part. The questions were: What is 
it? Why was it purchased? How do you 
find out about such collections? How did you 
go about getting it? And finally, why on 
earth was the whole collection packed in one 
tremendous box instead of in several smaller 
boxes that could be more easily handled? 

The collection actually consists of two 
separate collections, both purchased from 



to Emperor Franz Josef and a professor of 
higher physics in Trencsen. He was an 
ardent amateur naturalist and had accumu- 
lated significant collections of mollusks, 
bugs, flies, bees and wasps, grasshoppers and 
their allies, and beetles. His general world- 
collection of beetles 
consisted of about 
150,000 specimens re- 
presenting 35,000 
identified species. 

Shortly after Bran- 
csik's death in 1915, 
his beetle collection 
was sold to Dr. 
Knirsch. The col- 
lection at present con- 
sists of about 67,000 
specimens represent- 
ing about 20,000 iden- 
tified species (parts of 
it — containing certain 
large families — had 
been disposed of before 
it was acquired by 



Chicago Natural History Museum). 
The remaining valuable series of identified 
beetles, particularly from Africa, Australia, 
Europe, and the New World tropics help 
to fill out our world representation of iden- 
tified material to the extent that we now 
have some of the more important genera 
at least represented by "signposts" that 
will aid us in identifying, organizing, and 
handling unidentified research materials 
from these parts of the world. Before the 
acquisition of the Brancsik Collection, we 
had almost no African material. 

The second collection, of about 53,000 
specimens representing about 8,500 species 
consists of Eurasian and North African 
beetles and was formed by Knirsch himself. 
It is a palearctic collection; that is, it con- 
sists of specimens from the Old World north- 
temperate zone (see map). Such collections 
are of particular importance to students of 
the North American insect fauna because 
of the close relationships that exist between 
many of the animals of the Old and New 
World (nearctic) north-temperate zones, 
which together constitute the zoogeographic 
region called the holarctic. 

RESEARCH SCOPE BROADENED 

In the past, entomologists of the United 
States largely confined their studies to North 
American insects. Our fauna was large and 
unknown and the entomologists engaged in 
classifying the American species felt that 
they had enough to do without venturing 
abroad. Further, the important world- 
collections so necessary for studies of the 
insects of other parts of the world were in 
Europe and thus were essentially unavail- 
able to American workers. Time and events 
have caused the world to shrink for United 
States entomologists, too. More than ever 
before they recognize that the more pro- 
vincial their studies are, the less valuable 
they are. They particularly realize that 
because of the many genera and species that 
are common to North America and Eurasia, 
(Continued on page 7, column 1) 




o 



Holarctic region 

Areas of palearctic collection 



GEOGRAPHIC SOURCES OF BEETLE COLLECTIONS 

Map of the world showing holarctic region (shaded) and areas (solid black) 
well represented by Knirsch Collection. 



February, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



PREHISTORIC CULTURE OF CHICAGO AREA UNCOVERED 



By ELAINE BLUHM 

ASSISTANT IN ARCHAEOLOGY 

and DAVID J. WENNER, Jr. 

EARLY IN JUNE, 1953, a Cook County 
Forest Preserve superintendent, John 
Eenigenburg, learned that a new super- 
highway was to pass over an area in the 
forest where many Indian artifacts had been 



the crew worked carefully with no compen- 
sation other than the satisfaction of knowing 
that they were contributing to scientific re- 
search. 

In terms of area tested and amount of 
material recovered, the dig represented the 
largest scientific excavation ever conducted 
in the Chicago area and one of the largest 




CHICAGO AREA 'DIG' 

Excavation of prehistoric Indian site was begun by classic archaeological method: opening selected squares, 
in this case about five feet in dimensions. The earth removed was then systematically sifted for artifacts. 



found. Because he believed that this site 
might be important, members of the Mu- 
seum staff were notified of its location. 
During that spring and summer, members 
of the Earth Science Club of Northern 
Illinois had been conducting a survey (under 
the direction of Wenner) of archaeological 
sites in the Chicago area. When the notice 
of the site in the forest preserve came to the 
Museum, we visited it and decided that it 
would be well to excavate part of it before 
it was destroyed. 

Members of the Earth Science Club 
agreed to do the digging and to be respon- 
sible for collecting and cleaning the speci- 
mens. A permit to excavate was granted 
the group by Charles G. Sauers of the Cook 
County Forest Preserve District, with the 
provision that the specimens be sent to 
Chicago Natural History Museum and the 
University of Illinois so that they would be 
available to students for study in the future. 
Then the work began. 

The Hoxie Farm Site, as it was named, 
was excavated, under our direction, in ten 
weekends during the summer by members 
of the Earth Science Club and other in- 
terested amateur archaeologists. Usually 
the weather was hot and disagreeable, but 



in the state. The number of specimens 
found and the information obtained from 
the site about its former inhabitants stand 
as a tribute to this group of excavators. The 
success of the work also must be credited to 
the kindness and co-operation of Mr. 
Eenigenburg and Andrew Ross, of the forest 
preserve staff, who realized the value of the 
site and protected it from vandalism during 
the weekdays that we could not be there. 

Archaeological sites in the Chicago area 
frequently are not very large or very rich, 
and many are doubtlessly destroyed as the 
city and suburbs expand. Therefore it is 
important that we locate and protect the few 
that remain so that they may be studied and 
the story of the early Indian inhabitants of 
the area may be revealed before it is too late. 

The Hoxie Farm Site was located on 
a sandy ridge about fifteen feet above 
a stream. Records by early settlers in- 
dicate that as late as 1850 this stream was 
navigable by small boats and that the low- 
land to the north and east was a swampy 
area that attracted many birds and other 
animals. The quantity of animal bones 
recovered from the excavation indicates that 
this condition must have prevailed in abo- 
riginal times. Deer, elk, raccoons, beavers, 



ducks, turkeys, turtles, and many fishes 
were represented in the collection (presum- 
ably these animals were used as food by the 
Indians). To the south and southeast and 
across the stream were fields suitable for 
agriculture. Thus this site, with sandy soil 
that provided good drainage and dry footing 
for houses, land for cultivation, water for 
household needs and transportation, and an 
abundance of mammals, birds, and fish for 
food, satisfied all the requirements of the 
aboriginal inhabitants of our area who had 
to utilize every resource in order to sustain 
their primitive society. 

FIREPITS AND BURIALS POUND 

At the beginning of the project we ex- 
tended a long line down the length of the 
site and divided the area into five-foot 
squares. Selected five-foot squares were 
then excavated, the soil from each being 
removed in six-inch layers. All objects 
recovered were sacked and identified by 
square and level, so that we would know 
where each had been found. Walls and floors 
of the squares were carefully smoothed, 
and firepits, refuse pits, burials, and other 
features found in the soil were plotted on 
graph paper. In addition, the whole site 



oooo oootwmoc 



sT 00 ' 




SI 



A 


INSTRUMENT STATIONS 


zzz 


ROAD 




URKD WIRC FENCE 


aoa 


HEDGE ROW 


x 


THEE 


r:::::i 


1  :■.»»* n ! IDE* 


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TRACTOR TRENCH 




ORE) STAKES 



HOXIE FARM SITE - I l-Ck-336 

THORNTON TOWNSHIP 
COOK COUNTY, LLMOIS 

SCALE 

«0 *t£T 



HOXIE FARM SITE 
Map shows total area that has been excavated. 

was mapped, using surveyors' instruments, 
and thus we now have a record of all of the 
excavated area. 

The major purpose of any archaeological 
excavation is to find out how the inhabitants 
lived, what kinds of tools and objects they 
made and used, and, if possible, when they 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



February, 1956 



lived there, how long the site was occupied, 
and who they might have been. This in- 
formation is obtained by study, with plans 
and notes of the site, of the artifacts, 
skeletons, animal bones, and objects in 
refuse pits and by comparing this material 
with that from other sites. 

Once the pottery and stone and bone 
artifacts were catalogued, the job of study 
and analysis began, and it is not yet com- 
plete. The animal bone was turned over to 
an osteologist and the shell tp Dr. Fritz 
Haas, Curator of Lower Invertebrates in the 
Museum's Department of Zoology, for iden- 
tification. Results of their work were 
studied by Philip Young, a student member 
of the expedition. 

THOUSANDS OF POTTERY FRAGMENTS 
More than 10,000 potsherds (broken 
pieces of pottery) were recovered from the 
site. More than 90 per cent of these are 
shell-tempered — that is, when the pottery 
was made, the Indians mixed tiny pieces of 
ground clamshells in the moist clay to 
prevent it from cracking when it was fired. 
Shell-tempered pottery in the Middle West 
is an indication of a late site, dated, we guess, 
from between a.d. 1300 to 1600. Most of 
these sherds indicate that the pottery ves- 
sels were of globular shape with outflaring 
rims and sometimes small handles on the 
sides. Surfaces of most sherds were smooth- 
ed, but others were cordmarked. Many pots 
were small, between 6 and 10 inches in 
diameter, but some sherds indicate that the 
Indians also made much larger containers. 
The usual decoration on the pottery con- 
sists of wide trailed or incised lines in pat- 
terns of chevrons or parallel lines. 

Some of the pottery was grit-tempered 
and had been traded perhaps from Indian 
villages near what is now the Northwest 
Side of Chicago or Joliet. Other sherds 
resemble types found in northern Indiana, 
Ohio, and southern Wisconsin. 

In addition to the pottery, we found more 
than 1,200 stone tools and some of bone and 
antler. Most of the stone tools were chipped 
from cream-colored flint found in nearby 
creeks and glacial deposits. More than half 
of the tools were small scrapers with re- 
touched edges, used for smoothing hides as 
well as other things. 

There were slender, tapering flint drills 
and small thin flakes with sharpened edges, 
probably used much as we use paring knives 
and pocket knives today. Projectile points, 
or arrowheads, represented one-fourth of the 
chipped stone artifacts; most of them were 
small, thin, well-made triangular points. 

There were also some ground stone tools 
in the collection — sandstone pieces with 
grooves used to straighten arrow shafts and 
to sharpen awls; flat shallow stones and 
smaller hand stones used for grinding corn 
and, in one case, for grinding red pigment; 
and rounded pebbles used as hammerstones 
for chipping flint. 



There was an unusual variety of bone and 
antler tools at the site. Antler tips were 
hollowed out for fastening on a shaft to 
serve as arrowheads. Other antler tips were 
found that showed use as tools for chipping 
flint. Fragments of ribs and long bones 
served as awls, and one was perforated for 
use as a needle. Other fragments were 
smoothed for use, we postulate, as counters 
in a gambling game. One rib fragment was 
notched, and we believe it served as a musi- 
cal rasp, making a sound somewhat like that 
of a washboard. Short sections of hollow 
bird-bones were cut and smoothed to form 
tubular bone heads. A whole turtle shell 




PREHISTORIC CHICAGOAN 
An extended burial found on Hoxie Farm Site. 

was found that may have been a musical 
rattle. The largest bone tools were the hoes 
made from the shoulder blades of the deer 
and elk. These were often found in pairs 
on the top of cache pits. 

The excavation revealed a little about the 
village itself. Many round-bottomed pits 
were uncovered, particularly in the southern 
half of the site. These may have been used 
originally for storage of corn and later were 
filled in with refuse. A few firepits were 
also found. We searched diligently for 
evidence of houses, but found only one or 
two places where sturdy posts had once 
been driven into the ground and several 
traces of what may have been smaller posts. 
This is not conclusive evidence, but it 
suggests that perhaps the Indians lived in 
houses supported by sturdy center posts and 
light superstructure built on smaller posts 
that were not planted very firmly in the 
ground. Similar houses with mat or bark 
walls and roofs are known to have been used 
by historic tribes in this area. 



The burials were the most exciting finds 
in the site. Eleven were recovered from the 
burial area in the northern part of the 
village; others were uncovered but in some 
cases the bone was so soft that it could not 
be removed without crumbling. The bodies 
had been placed on their backs in shallow 
rectangular pits. Often a small pot was 
placed near the head of the burial. Near the 
shoulder of one individual had been placed 
an otter skull, covered with a piece of 
copper and powdered red ochre. The otter 
has ceremonial significance for some Indian 
groups in this area and may indicate the 
man was an important member of his family 
or clan. Other burials had arrowheads or 
copper ornaments placed with them. 

cultural traits traced 
All in all, our summer excavations at the 
Hoxie Farm site were well worth while. We 
learned much about the Indians who lived 
in that village on the edge of the creek. We 
know they hunted and fished, and we assume 
they planted corn and other crops nearby, 
although we found only the agricultural 
tools and none of the corn. Their houses are 
still something of a mystery, but we have 
much evidence about their storage pits and 
firepits. We know they buried their dead 
in an area somewhat apart from the main 
living-area of the village, with some care and 
ceremony, placing objects with them that 
show their daily life or perhaps prepared 
them for the journey to the other world. 
Their tools were well made and reflect much 
of their daily life and economy. Pipe frag- 
ments were found, which indicates smoking, 
a ceremonial activity among the Indians. 
The bone rasp and possible turtle-shell 
rattle are indications of their musical know- 
ledge. 

Trade was carried on with other areas and 
sites. The copper probably came from 
northern Michigan, a pipe found at the site 
came from Wisconsin, and some of the 
pottery may have been traded from, or 
influenced by, groups in Wisconsin, Indiana, 
and other sites in Illinois. 

Exactly when this site was occupied we 
do not know. We found no trade silver or 
brass, which suggests the Indians lived there 
some time before the white men came into 
the area in the latter part of the 17th cen- 
tury. Probably the site was occupied some 
time around a.d. 1500 to 1600. Who these 
Indians were is still an unsolved mystery, 
but perhaps if we excavate other late sites 
and study documented sites in the area we 
may someday be able to identify this group. 
We can now say that they might have been 
Miami or Pottawatomi. As is true of every 
archaeological excavation, we have un- 
covered some information, but, in addition, 
we have found more problems that can be 
solved only by future work. 



Sunday afternoon lectures and films will 
be given at the Museum in March and April. 



February, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



BEETLES- 

(Continued from page i) 

it is undesirable — and in many cases virtually 
impossible — to do certain types of work on 
the fauna of the one subregion without 
reference to that of the other. Yet, good 
representative general collections of Euro- 
pean insects have been largely lacking in 
this country. Our staff has long wanted to 
acquire such collections, but no opportu- 
nities arose that would make it possible to 
translate these wishes into reality. The 
collections simply were not being offered on 
the market. 

In the spring of 1955, 1 attended a meeting 
of insect curators in Washington, D.C., that 
was held to discuss mutual problems and 
policies, and to exchange information on 
subjects ranging from collections to tech- 
nique. One of the items discussed was the 
desirability of stressing the need for Ameri- 
can entomologists to study the palearctic 
fauna, and the associated need for United 
States museums to acquire Eurasian col- 
lections. Dr. P. J. Darlington, Jr., of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology at Har- 
vard, informed me that they had recently 
been offered a large collection of palearctic 
beetles by Dr. Knirsch and that they had 
purchased one large segment, the ground 
beetles, for their collection. The Harvard 
museum was not in a position to purchase 
the main collection. 

This information was surprising, because 
Chicago Natural History Museum had been 
corresponding with Dr. Knirsch since 1946 
in connection with other collections that he 
was offering for sale and Knirsch had never 
given any indication that he had a pale- 
arctic collection. The information was 
passed on to Dr. Clifford C. Gregg, Director 
of our Museum, who forwarded an inquiry 
about the collection to Dr. Knirsch's repre- 
sentative. His answer revealed that Knirsch 
still had the palearctic collection and that 
he also had a general world-collection, the 
Brancsik collection, that he was offering for 
sale. 

Dr. Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of 
Zoology, then approved a memorandum 
submitted to him by the Division of Insects 
and recommended to the Director that 
action be taken and that an offer be made. 
This recommendation was concurred in by 
the Director and Stanley Field, President 
of the Museum. 

In the correspondence that followed, 
a tentative purchase price was agreed upon, 
pending an examination of the collections 
by a representative of the Museum. Fortu- 
nately, Dr. Charles H. Seevers, Research 
Associate in our Division of Insects, was in 
London studying rove beetles at the British 
Museum (Natural History) . At our request 
he flew to Vienna and, with the help of 
Mrs. Seevers, examined and inventoried the 
collections. He then sent us a critical, 
detailed, and comprehensive report. On the 



basis of his report, it was decided to proceed 
with the purchase. John R. Millar, Deputy 
Director of the Museum, then began ar- 
rangements with the American Express 
Company in Vienna, and later in Chicago, 
for the shipment of and payment for the 
collection. Dr. Josef Eiselt of the Natur- 
historisches Museum of Vienna had assisted 
me in packing the Bernhauer Collection for 
shipment in 1951. He agreed to do the same 
work on the Knirsch collections. During 
the period that the collection was being 
packed, Dr. Knirsch died and progress was 
delayed for a short time pending clarification 
of the legal status of the transaction. Pay- 
ment was made through a lawyer appointed 
by the Austrian courts as executor of the 
estate, in favor of Knirsch's widow. 

SAFEGUARDS IN TRANSIT 

The final crating of the collection, as for 
the Bernhauer Collection, was accomplished 
by Bauml & Co., a Viennese firm that 
handled the packing and shipping of the 
Viennese art treasures during their extended 
tour of the United States following World 
War II. It was at their suggestion that the 
collections were packed in the single huge 
liftvan. Their experience had been that 
when large collections of extremely fragile 
materials were packed into a container that 
could be lifted only by a crane, damage was 
reduced to negligible proportions and fre- 
quently eliminated altogether. Further, 
fragments of the shipment could not go 
astray. From our own experience, as well 
as that of other institutions, we know this 
to be a sound procedure for such large trans- 
oceanic shipments. Two large, valuable, 
and extremely fragile collections have now 
been moved from Vienna to Chicago Natural 
History Museum without loss of any kind. 

The complex task of negotiating for the 
purchase, arranging for permits, packing, 
crating, shipping, and payment of such 
a collection from a foreign country can be 
fully appreciated only by those who have 
had to see it through. It is time-consuming, 
at times exasperating, and always sur- 
rounded by doubts and difficulties, as Mr. 
Millar can testify. But the day of arrival 
and unpacking that tells you whether or not 
judgment was sound and the fates kind is 
exciting and satisfying. 



Daily Guide Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered daily 
except Sundays under the title "Highlights 
of the Exhibits." These tours are designed 
to give a general idea of the entire Museum 
and its scope of activities. They begin at 
2 p.m. on Monday through Friday and at 
2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 

Special tours on subjects within the range 
of the Museum exhibits are available Mon- 
days through Fridays for parties of ten or 
more persons. Requests for such service 
must be made at least one week in advance. 



SATURDAY LECTURES 
BEGIN MARCH 3 

"North to Adventure," a lecture by 
Frederick Machetanz illustrated with a real- 
ly thrilling color motion-picture of life in 
the Yukon country, will be presented in the 
James Simpson Theatre of the Museum on 
March 3 at 2:30 p.m. It is the opening 
program in the spring course of lectures and 
films on science and travel for adults — the 
105th such series to be offered under the 
provisions of the Edward E. Ayer Lecture 
Foundation Fund. Eight other lectures will 
be given on Saturday afternoons throughout 
March and April, all at 2:30 o'clock. 

Machetanz, received with acclaim by 
Museum audiences at lectures in other sea- 
sons, spent more than a year in exploration 
of the fabulous pass between the Indian 
village of Kaltag, Alaska, on the Yukon 
River and the Bering Sea while making his 
latest film. He was accompanied by his 
wife and a team of sled dogs headed by 
his famous white dog Seegoo. 

A schedule of the other eight lectures will 
appear in the March issue of the Bulletin. 
For all the programs, a section of the theatre 
is reserved for Members of the Museum, 
each of whom is entitled to two reserved 
seats. Requests for reserved seats should 
be made in advance by telephone (W Abash 
2-9410) or in writing. Seats will be held in 
the Member's name until 2:25 p.m. on the 
day of the program. 



Free Movies for Children 

Nine free programs of motion pictures for 
children will be presented on Saturday 
mornings throughout March and April in the 
spring series offered by the James Nelson 
and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation. 
First program, on March 3, will be "North 
to Adventure," and Frederick Machetanz, 
the explorer who made the film, will be 
present to give a children's version of the 
lecture he will give for adults on the after- 
noon of the same day. No tickets are 
needed. Children are welcome either alone, 
accompanied by parents or other adults, or 
in groups from schools, clubs, and other 
centers. A schedule of the eight other pro- 
grams will appear in the March Bulletin. 



Books by Machetanz 

Books by Frederick Machetanz, lecturer 
on Alaska scheduled for both the adult and 
children's programs at the Museum on 
March 3, are available in The Book Shop 
of the Museum. Those for adults are Here 
Is Alaska ($3.50) and Where Else But 
Alaska ($3). Titles for children are Panuck, 
an Eskimo Sled Dog ($2.50), On Arctic Ice 
($2.50), Barney Hits the Trail ($2.50), and 
Rick of High Ridge ($2.50). 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



February, 1956 



HUGE WHALE SKELETON 
RECEIVED AS GIFT 

The Museum recently received by truck 
the skeleton of a California finback whale 
as a gift from the Wistar Institute of Anat- 
omy and Biology, Philadelphia. The skele- 
ton, which was originally presented to the 
Institute by the late eminent E. D. Cope 
and was exhibited there for many years, 
is 65 feet long. The finback skeleton is 
15 feet longer than the right- whale skeleton 
that it will replace. 

Because Chicago is remote from the sea, 
the skeleton of a right whale has for many 
years been one of the Museum's major at- 
tractions. It will be gratifying to replace 
it with one of the largest of whales. 



Annual Attendance Over Million 
for Twenty-ninth Time 

Attendance at the Museum in 1955 ex- 
ceeded a million, reaching a total of 
1,072,676 visitors. Since 1926, a period 
of twenty-nine successive years, annual 
attendance has never dropped below a mil- 
lion. 

As in other years, comparatively few 
visitors (129,151, or barely over 12 per cent) 
paid the 25-cent admission charged adults 
on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and 
Fridays. The overwhelming majority 
(943,525) came on the three free days or 
belonged to those groups to whom admission 
is free at all times (Members of the Museum, 
children, teachers, members of the armed 
forces, etc.). 

The number of visitors coming into the 
building is, of course, an incomplete measure 
of the Museum's effectiveness. Hundreds 
of thousands of people are repeatedly 
reached through extramural activities such 
as the circulation throughout the school 
year of natural-history exhibits by the N. W. 
Harris Public School Extension and the 
lecturers with films and slides sent into the 
schools by the James Nelson and Anna 
Louise Raymond Foundation. Less directly 
the Museum's influence is spread to count- 
less others by publications of the Museum 
press and by radio, television, magazines, 
and newspapers. 



STAFF NOTES 



Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, Curator Emeritus 
of Zoology, has been appointed to the Ameri- 
can Institute of Biological Sciences' advisory 
committee on systematic biology to the 
National Science Foundation .... Dr. 
Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator of Geology, 
is spending several weeks in Washington, 
D.C., at the United States National Museum 
in research on meteorites .... Dr. Julian 
A. Steyermark, Curator of the Phanero- 



gamic Herbarium, recently lectured before 
the Evanston Garden Club on his Venezuela 
"lost world" expedition .... Loren P. 
Woods, Curator of Fishes, recently was the 
speaker before the Conservation Council on 
"Conservation in the Great Lakes." .... 
Cameron E. Gifford, formerly an assist- 
ant in taxidermy, has been appointed Pre- 
parator of Fossils in the Department of 
Geology. He received the degree of Bache- 
lor of Science at Earlham College in June, 
1955, before he joined the Museum staff. 



NEW MEMBERS 

(December 16 to January 13) 

Contributor 

Wm. McCormick Blair 

Associate Members 

Alfred S. Alschuler, Jr., Mrs. Robert T. 
Borcherdt, F. B. Milhoan, Robert H. Reid, 
Mrs. William M. Scudder 

Annual Members 

Lore W. Alford, Milton R. Beasley, W. S. 
Bodman, Howard A. Carlton, Peter Cola- 
darci, M. M. Cole, Walter W. Denman, 
F. J. Dittrich, Dr. Jerome Fishman, An- 
thony M. Frale, Elton A. Herrick, Emil T. 
Johnson, Richard B. Keck, John 0. Kin- 
dahl, Robert J. Koretz, Maxwell Kunin, 
Wenzel J. Love, Dr. Saul Mackoff, R. E. 
McGreevy, James P. McGuffin, Louis Nip- 
pert, J. V. Paffhausen, Lutz Pennigsdorf, 
Carl Dan Pierson, Dr. R. W. Pilcher, Mrs. 
William F. Ray, James A. Reynolds, Jr., 
Robert S. Russell, Aaron B. Weiner 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of principal gifts re- 
ceived during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology: 

From: Mrs. Edward R. Finnegan, Chicago 
— pottery jar, Dean's Island Arkansas; E. C. 
Holden, Chicago — object of horn and lead; 
Robert A. Stough, Chicago — Chinese rub- 
bing, Hengshan, Hunan Province, China 

Department of Botany: 

From: Roger Boe, Broadview, Illinois — 2 
fungi; Dr. Fay K. Daily, Indianapolis — 
alga, New York; Margaret Fox, London, 
England — alga, Sierra Leone; Dr. Leroy J. 
Gier, Liberty, Missouri — moss; Dr. Herbert 
Habeeb, Grand Falls, New Brunswick — 
892 algae; Institut National pour l'Etude 
Agronomique, Belgian Congo — 52 samples 
of seeds of agricultural Leguminosae; Dr. 
Jacques Rousseau, Montreal — 2 algae; Emil 
Sella, Chicago — 2 lichens, Oregon; Dr. I. 
Umezaki, Maizura, Japan — 3 algae; M. B. 
Valero, Quezon City, Philippine Islands — 
3 algae; Mrs. Marion Wolf, Lafayette, La. 
— fruits of Cercis, Mimosa, Campsis, Ipo- 
moea, Wisteria, 3 herbarium specimens 

Department of Geology: 

From: H. J. Carlson, Anchorage, Alaska 
— jar of volcanic ash; University of Chicago 
— 107 fossil plant specimens; Shell Develop- 
ment Co., Houston, Tex. — undetermined 
placoderm plate, Canada; Dr. and Mrs. R. 
H. Whitfield, Evanston, 111. — Lepidoderma 



MELVIN TRAYLOR JOINS 
CURATORIAL STAFF 

Melvin A. Traylor, Jr., who has been 
associated with the Museum's Division of 
Birds in various capacities since 1937, has 
been appointed Assistant Curator of Birds. 
He assumed his duties last month. 

Mr. Traylor's interest in birds began in 
his boyhood and continued as an adult 
hobby, finally leading to his decision to 
adopt ornithology as a profession. His 
serious work in ornithology got under way 
with two collecting expeditions in Yucatan 
that he conducted on behalf of the Museum 
in 1937 and in 1939-40. Upon his return 
from the latter, he joined the Museum staff 
on a volunteer basis as Associate in the 
Division of Birds, and later he was appointed 
Research Associate. In 1941 he was a mem- 
ber of the Leon Mandel Galapagos Expedi- 
tion, and the Southwest Zoological Expedi- 
tion. He also conducted an expedition in 
the Veracruz area in 1948. He is a graduate 
of Harvard University, where he majored 
in biology. 

Mr. Traylor joined the U. S. Marine 
Corps in 1941, enlisting as a private. He 
served with distinction through the war and 
was commissioned successively as lieutenant, 
captain, and major and won the Silver Star 
for valor in the Pacific theater. After 
retiring from the Marines in 1946, he re- 
turned to his ornithological studies at the 
Museum; then for several years he was 
engaged in private business ventures. 
In his new position at the Museum Mr. 
Traylor will specialize in Old World birds, 
while Curator Emmet R. Blake will con- 
tinue to give his attention primarily to the 
New World collections. 



mazonense and collection of Pennsylvanian 
fossil plant specimens, Braidwood, Illinois 

Department of Zoology: 

From: Chicago Zoological Society, Brook- 
field, 111. — mammal, Madagascar; D. Dwight 
Davis, Richton Park, 111. — mammal; Fred- 
erick R. Fechtner, Champaign, 111. — col- 
lection of fresh- water clams; U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Milford, Conn. — 14 para- 
sitic snailshells; Cameron E. Gifford, Valpa- 
raiso, Ind. — 13 small mammals, Cook 
County; Harry Hoogstraal, Cairo, Egypt — 
43 frogs, 95 lizards, 27 snakes, 12 birdskins, 
98 mammals; Gary Manda, Chicago — 5 
small mammals; University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor — 5 paratypical land-shells, South 
and Central America; John R. Millar, 
Skokie, 111. — 7 small mammals; Jack T. 
Moyer, Hamilton, N.Y. — 225 birdskins, 
Japan; Oriental Institute, Chicago — 11 bird 
skeletons, 2 birds, 6 mammal skeletons, Iraq; 
Dr. Ralph S. Palmer and Frances Benedict, 
Albany, N.Y. — 800 labeled microscope slides 
of bat hairs; Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, 
Barrington, 111. — mammal skin; Roland von 
Hentig, Chicago — 3,142 insects, Borneo and 
Sumatra; Dr. Frederick J. Medem, Bogota, 
Colombia — 4 lots of nonmarine shells 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



T 

RULLETIN 

LJ Vol.27, No.3-March- 1956 

\ Chicago Natural 

History Museum 





HHHHHfli 






THIS BARRIER 
WILL BE 
v REMOVED ON 

DINOSAUR 
NIGHT 

* TUESDAY 

MARCH 27 






Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



March, 1956 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery Hughston M. McBain 

Wh. McCormick Blair William H. Mitchell 

Walther Buchen John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Walter J. Cummings Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

Samuel Insull, Jr. John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Hughston M. McBain Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Jane Rockwell 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



'SO YOU WORK 
IN A MUSEUM!' 

The above exclamation, in astonished 
voice, and its complementary question, 
"How come?" or variants thereof, are fre- 
quently heard by members of the staff of 
this and other museums when their occupa- 
tion is revealed for the first time to friends 
and acquaintances. 

The question was recently asked of Melvin 
A. Traylor, Jr., who at the beginning of this 
year terminated a career in business to join 
the Museum staff in a full-time position as 
Assistant Curator in the Division of Birds. 
The interrogator was a reporter for the 
Chicago Sun-Times, who scented a feature 
story behind the announcement of the 
appointment. 

"Birds are better than business," the 
reporter was told by Traylor, for whom the 
new Museum job was a return rather than 
a beginning. He had first become associated 
with the Division of Birds in 1937 as a volun- 
teer worker and was a member of a number 
of Museum expeditions. After gallant war 
service with the U. S. Marines, Traylor had 
resumed his volunteer activities at the Mu- 
seum. In the next few years friends kept up 
a constant pressure, he told the reporter. 

"They told me I was wasting my life. 
They said I would never know what I might 



be able to accomplish in business if I didn't 
give it a try. I began to wonder what the 
answer might be." 

Finally, in 1951, Traylor and two other 
young men formed the Allied Barge Com- 
pany. A little later Traylor was offered and 
accepted the presidency of a toy-manufac- 
turing company. 

"I had offices in a Loop building opposite 
two second-hand book stores," he said. 
"I would spend most of my lunch hour in 
one or the other hunting for good buys in 
books on science. That became the one 
happy hour of my day. It was the only 
time I felt free of pressures. My business 
work did not leave me with the feeling I was 
doing anything constructive. In the Mu- 
seum's work I had had a sense of accom- 
plishment. The study of birds helps man 
toward an understanding of all of nature. 

"Since my return to the Museum several 
businessmen friends have told me they envy 
me. They're not happy in their work but 
they have such a stake in it through time 
spent and big paychecks coming in that they 
can't bear to give it up and turn to some- 
thing more appealing. 

"But I haven't found any unhappy people 
working in the Museum. They're here 
because it's here they want to be." 



BROTHER LEON 

(Dr. Joseph Sylvestre Sauget y Barbier) 
1871—1955 

With the death on November 20, 1955, of 
Brother Leon the Museum lost one of its 
highly esteemed Corresponding Members. 
Born December 31, 1871, in Mesnay-les- 
Arbois, France, he was educated in Besancon 
and Dijon. He joined the order of Christian 
Brothers in 1885 and taught mathematics 
and natural science in France, Canada, and 
Cuba, where he spent the greater part of his 
life. His special field of interest was the 
vegetation of Cuba, particularly its palms. 
Renowned professor at the Colegio de la 
Salle in Vedado, Havana, he was one of the 
founders of that institution. 

A monument to the founders stands in 
the patio of the Colegio in Vedado, but the 
monument entirely his own will be the her- 
barium he established and the publications 
he wrote. With Brother Marie Victorin of 
the University of Montreal, he collaborated 
in Itineraires Botaniques, an account of their 
explorations of the vegetation of Cuba. His 
outstanding work is the Flora of Cuba, three 
volumes of which have been issued, while 
the fourth and last is still in the very com- 
petent hands of his pupil and collaborator 
Brother Alain of the same Colegio de la 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



The barriers that have aroused 
the curiosity of the young visitors 
in our cover picture will be re- 
moved on Dinosaur Night (the 
evening of Tuesday, March 27) to 
reveal to Members of the Museum 
and guests the completed exhibit 
of Gorgosaurus - and Lambeo- 
saurus. Details of this event will 
be found on page 3. On pages 4 
and 5 are pictures of stages in the 
long and intricate process of pre- 
paration. 



Salle, co-author also of the second and third 
volumes. 

In recognition of his outstanding work, 
Brother Leon received in 1927 the degree of 
Doctor of Science, honoris causa, from 
Columbia University and many other honors 
from various institutions. On May 16, 
1949, the Board of Trustees of Chicago 
Natural History Museum elected Brother 
Leon a Corresponding Member. 



DINOSAUR NIGHT 

Tuesday, March 27 



NEW MEMBERS 

(January 16 to February 13) 

Contributor 

Hughston M. McBain 

Associate Members 

Robert A. Kroeschell, John F. Milliken, 
Mrs. Harry J. O'Rourke, Dr. Edward L. 
Schrey, Lester N. Selig, Carl J. Sharp, 
Leonard P. Spacek, John Stewart, S. C. 
Waldman, Dr. Paul K. Weichselbaum 

Non-Resident Associate Member 

Gabriel N. Vas 

Annual Members 

J. Kenneth Baird, George L. Bower, Dr. 
Paul L. Bower, Alfred J. Brennan, Richard 
P. Brown, Jr., John C. Chatterton, Joseph 
F. Clary, Andrew F. Conlin, C. W. Duncan, 
Dr. N. Ercoli, Mrs. Anna Erichsen, Cyril 
Ewart, Isadore Fishman, Julius Fishman, 
Mrs. Mildred C. Fletcher, Allyn J. Franke, 
Miss Mary Garcia, Don R. Grimes, George 
J. Handzik, James Hansen, Mrs. Nina Har- 
rell, John G. Heiland, George J. Heitz, 
Howard J. Johnson, Mrs. Ray W. Leonard, 
Edward Logrbrinck, Charles O. Main, Leo 
S. Maranz, Howard T. Markey, W. Stirling 
Maxwell, John C. McWilliams, Dr. Irene 
T. Mead, Chester F. Mikucki, Wesley A. 
Miner, Robert T. Morley, Albert E. Noel, 
DeWitt O'Kieffe, Robert E. Oscar, John C. 
Ott, Walter C. Paeth, F. W. Pain, Sidney 

A. Paradee, Roy J. Pierson, John J. Poister, 

B. B. Provus, Theodore H. Reed, Joseph E. 
Rich, Dr. William L. Riker, Dr. John 
Francis Ruzic, Dr. Wilma C. Stafford, Wirt 
W. Stafford, Fred W. Storner, Harry R. 
Swanson, Kenneth R. Turney, Walter Yust, 
Frank O. Zimmermann 



March, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



PageS 



DINOSAUR NIGHT' FOR MUSEUM MEMBERS-MARCH 27 



(Pictures on pages 4 and 5) 

GORGOSAURUS, a giant dinosaur 26 
feet long, with his head towering to 
a height of 15 feet, will make his debut at 
the Museum in a preview for Members on 
the evening of Tuesday, March 27. The 
event has been designated as Dinosaur 
Night. Featured will be a lecture by Dr. 
Edwin H. Colbert, outstanding paleontol- 
ogist. 

Gorgosaurus, a predatory carnivorous 
character, will be displayed with Lambeo- 
saurus, his victim, also a large dinosaur but 
vegetarian in habits and probably a gentler 
creature. After the Members' preview, these 
spectacular prehistoric animals will remain 
in Stanley Field Hall on permanent exhibi- 
tion for the general public. 

Only Seven Known Skeletons 

Gorgosaurus, king of beasts some 75 mil- 
lion years ago and a tyrannical monarch, 
has survived in almost complete fossil skele- 
ton form. Most important acquisition the 
Museum has received in recent years, Gorgo- 
saurus comes to the Museum as a gift from 
members of its Board of Trustees who con- 
tributed thousands of dollars for its pur- 
chase. It is an extremely rare specimen. 
Only seven skeletons of this genus have so 
far been collected. 

Lambeosaurus, a duck-billed dinosaur of 
a variety believed to have been a favorite 
prey of Gorgosaurus, has been in the Mu- 
seum for years awaiting a suitable installa- 
tion such as now has been made. This 
skeleton was excavated in Alberta, Canada 
(where Gorgosaurus also was discovered), in 
1922 by an expedition sponsored by Marshall 
Field, now First Vice-President of the Mu- 
seum. Leader of the expedition was Elmer 
S. Riggs, former Curator of Paleontology. 

Presentation Ceremony 

At the Dinosaur Night ceremony, the 
presentation address will be made by Louis 
Ware, Museum Trustee who initiated the 
move that resulted in bringing Gorgosaurus 
to the Museum. The acceptance speech will 
be made by Stanley Field, President of the 
Museum. Dr. Clifford C. Gregg, Director, 
will act as master of ceremonies. 

The exhibit showing Gorgosaurus looking 
down upon a dead Lambeosaurus is installed 
in a central location in Stanley Field Hall, to 
the south of the famous fighting African 
elephants mounted by Carl E. Akeley. Be- 
cause of the vast dimensions of the hall and 
the large assemblage of the Museum Mem- 
bers and guests expected, arrangements 
have been made to assure that all may hear 
by providing a public-address system to 
amplify the voices of speakers. 

The presentation ceremony is scheduled 
for 8:30 P.M., but the doors of the Museum 
will be open at 7 p.m. Early visitors will 



have the opportunity to tour the two large 
halls of prehistoric life on the second floor — 
Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) and 
Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37)— where 
they may inspect not only other dinosaur 
exhibits but other forms of fossils including 
the lowest invertebrates that flourished many 
hundreds of millions of years ago. 

Preceding the presentation there will be 
an informal gathering of Museum Members, 
other guests, and members of the staff. Visi- 




HOW THEY LOOKED IN LIFE 

Miniature sculptured restoration of Gorgosaurus 

(right) and Lambeosaurus, by Maidi Wiebe, Artist 

of the Department of Geology. This model will be 

exhibited with the actual skeletons. 

tors will have opportunity to "talk shop" — 
dinosaur shop — with the paleontologists and 
preparators whose thought and toil resulted 
in the exhibit of Gorgosaurus and Lambeo- 
saurus. 

Illustrated Lecture in Theatre 

At 9 p.m. on Dinosaur Night, guests are 
invited to the Museum's James Simpson 
Theatre where an illustrated lecture will be 
given by Dr. Edwin H. Colbert, one of the 
world's leading students of fossil reptiles 
and mammals. Dr. Colbert is Curator of 
Fossil Reptiles and Amphibians at the 
American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, and Professor of Vertebrate 
Paleontology at Columbia University. He 
is author of many scientific papers and of 
The Dinosaur Book, which is widely regarded 
as the best semipopular account of fossil 
reptiles. Dr. Colbert is responsible for the 
recent reoganization of fossil-reptile exhibits 
at the American Museum. He has led many 
expeditions, and recently discovered an 
aggregation of small early dinosaurs in 
Triassic deposits of New Mexico. 

Souvenir Pamphlet 

An illustrated leaflet on Gorgosaurus and 
Lambeosaurus, especially prepared for Dino- 
saur Night by Dr. Rainer Zangerl, Curator 



of Fossil Reptiles at this Museum, will be 
distributed to all who are present on this 
occasion. 

The assembling of the Gorgosaurus skele- 
ton, a major installation feat, was performed 
by Orville L. Gilpin, Chief Preparator of 
Fossils. He was assisted by Preparators 
Stanley Kuczek and Cameron E. Gifford 
and by William D. Turnbull, Assistant Cu- 
rator of Fossil Mammals. Curator Zangerl 
supervised the entire operation. 

In life, Gorgosaurus is believed to have 
weighed about six tons. The fossil skull is 
42 inches long and weighs more than 200 
pounds. The more placid vegetarian dino- 
saurs that were contemporaries had little 
chance to escape when Gorgosaurus pounced 
upon them. The flesh-eating monster was 
powerful and agile, despite his great bulk. 
His jaws are studded with large teeth having 
sharp edges and suggesting his fearful 
potentialities as a killer. He was first cousin 
to the better-known Tyrannosaurus, which 
also was a terror to its herbivorous contem- 
poraries in the prehistoric world. 

Gorgosaurus was excavated from the 
Belly River Formation in the Red Deer 
River area of the province of Alberta, Can- 
ada, not far from the city of Edmonton. 

Special Bus Service 

For the convenience of visitors on Dino- 
saur Night, there is ample free parking-space 
at the north of the Museum building. For 
those who do not wish to drive their cars, 
special free motor-bus service has been ar- 
ranged. A special bus marked to indicate 
Museum shuttle-service will leave Jackson 
Boulevard at State Street at 15-minute 
intervals beginning at 6:45 p.m. The last 
bus will leave the Museum at 11 p.m. In both 
directions the bus will make intermediate 
stops on Michigan Avenue at Jackson and 
at 7th Street. This transportation is free — 
no fares collected, no transfers required. 



Daily Guide Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered daily 
except Sundays under the title "Highlights 
of the Exhibits." These tours are designed 
to give a general idea of the entire Museum 
and its scope of activities. They begin at 
2 P.M. on Monday through Friday and at 
2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 

Special tours on subjects within the range 
of the Museum exhibits are available Mon- 
days through Fridays for parties of ten or 
more persons. Requests for such service 
must be made at least one week in advance. 



Disease Chaser 

Among the Tinguian people in the Philip- 
pine Islands, natives weave potek (a variety 
of bamboo) into necklaces and anklets worn 
to ward off smallpox. 







1 



Plaster jackets removed and bones prepared, L.im- 
• beosaurus awaits move to main hall. 




X)i has**** — lr?a%y 

GORGOSAURUJ 




1 But Orville Gilpin was faced with months 
" of patient chipping. 



f~* ORGOSAURUS, one of the largest and most vici< 
make their debut March 27 as a permanent exhibit 
toil by staff paleontologists. Gorgosaurus is some 26 ft 
six tons. It is a recent gift from the Museum's Trustee 
cavated years ago by an expedition sponsored by Marsh 
here are the principal steps involved in restoring these n 



Steel construction for skeleton eliminates vertical 
* supports and maintains balance. 




I Metal discs that separate vertebrae are 
• welded into place. 



Gilpin and William Turnbull bolt leg- O 

irons to frame. 



Skull is hoisted fif 
* and tackle. 



Page i 



-Giant Jigsaw Puzzle 





I Skull is unpacked; it weighs 205 pounds and is an 
• impressive 42 inches long. 



'. Skeleton of Gorgosaurus arrives in seven large 
* crates; Gilpin and assistant remove scapula. 



linosaurs, and its unfortunate victim, Lambeosaurus, will 
tanley Field Hall. They represent 18 months of arduous 
ng, towers 15 feet above floor, and in life weighed about 
ambeosaurus, a plant-eating duck-billed dinosaur, was ex- 
ield, now First Vice-President of the Museum. Pictured 
ptilian enemies of 75 million years ago. 




11 



DRESS REHEARSAL in workroom is a success. Two skeletons reach final stages of prepara- 
• tion for Dinosaur Night, Tuesday, March 27, when Museum Members are invited to a preview. 




I eet on block 



Cameron Gifford assists Gilpin and Turnbull 10 

in placing skull. v 



Skull and jaws emphasize terrifying character 
• of giant carnivore. 



Page 5 






Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



March, 1956 



SEE THE WORLD IN LECTURE-FILMS ON SATURDAYS 



IF YOU CAN'T get away from town, you 
can still see the world. In fact, you can 
see places and phases of life you would 
scarcely encounter as a tourist. Yukon 



as well as the continuation of exploration 
in outboard-motored boats during the 
milder summer. The life of the Eskimos 
is well documented. 




TOUGH DOGS FOR TOUGH TRIP 
Fred Machetanz, lecturer to appear at Museum March 3, and wife (left) harness their team of malemutes to 
haul sledge on rugged journey through fields of ice and snow in Alaska between the Yukon and Bering Sea. 



country . . . mountains and jungles of Ecua- 
dor . . ."down under" in the bushland of 
Australia . . . the Nile deep in Africa beyond 
Egypt . . . the forbidding icy slopes of 
Mount Everest. These are a few of the 
out-of-the-way places to be brought to 
Chicago audiences in color motion-pictures 
and lectures by explorers of eminence on the 
nine Saturday afternoons during March and 
April. 

The Edward E. Ayer Lecture Foundation 
for the 105th time will provide vicarious 
adventures abroad for those whose stay-at- 
home obligations prevent satisfaction of 
wanderlust. The programs, to be given in 
the James Simpson Theatre of the Museum, 
all will begin at 2:30 p.m. Admission is free. 
Only adults can be accommodated, but on the 
mornings of the same Saturdays the Museum 
provides free motion-pictures for children. 
Following is a synopsis of the programs for 
adults: 

March 3 — North to Adventure 

Fred Machetanz 

This program takes you on a long trip 
through Alaska by dog team — in much more 
comfort than if you actually made the trip. 
Machetanz, who lives in Alaska, an artist 
and author of many books, was accompanied 
by his wife on this journey by sledge and on 
snowshoes. His film shows the exploration 
in subzero weather of a rugged pass between 
the Yukon and the shore of the Bering Sea 



March 10 — Ecuador 

Eric Pavel 

Pavel presents in color film a survey of 
Ecuador from end to end. Shown are its 
gateway port of Guayaquil, its mountain 
areas in the Andes, its wild jungles where the 
headhunting Jivaro Indians dwell, and its 
offshore possession, the Galapagos Islands, 
where Darwin developed his theory of 
evolution. The Otavalo Indians, famed for 
woodcarving and painting, are seen at work 
and play, in picturesque markets, and at 
a colorful wedding ceremony. The Gala- 
pagos sequences provide studies of unique 
giant tortoises and other strange animal 
life. 

March 17 — Northern and Western 
Australia 

Alfred M. Bailey 

Dr. Bailey, Director of the Denver Mu- 
seum of Natural History, presents the first 
film in natural color of out-of-the-way places 
in the vast western half of Australia. A land 
of contrasts — red desert and green palms, 
salt lakes, and vast cattle stations — it is the 
home of aborigines still living in the equiva- 
lent of the Stone Age. The film includes 
intimate studies of strange animal and plant 
life found in dunes, mountains, and lakes. 



Besides the wilderness areas, Dr. Bailey 
shows the interesting cities of Adelaide, 
Darwin, Derby, Carnarvon, and Perth. 

March 24 — Kayaks Down the Nile 

John Goddard 

The Nile, longest river in the world, 
yielded its secrets to the camera of John 
Goddard, who had the interesting idea of 
traveling its 4,200 miles in small boats 
patterned after Eskimo kayaks. Only 
a fourth of this great river's length lies 
within Egypt. The Nile in the wilder Africa 
beyond, strewn with roaring cataracts and 
passing through steaming fever-ridden jun- 
gle, ranks among the most treacherous of all 
waters. This is the first complete color- 
record of the Nile's entire course. During 
his adventure-packed voyage Goddard en- 
countered hazardous rapids, wild animals, 
river pirates, and even the threat of star- 
vation. Many of the strange and vast areas 
he invaded had seldom before been glimpsed 
by explorers. 

March 31 — Spain 

Clifford J. Kamen 

Spain from the Pyrenees on the north to 
Andalucia in the south, ancient Spain where 
the Greeks, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and 
Romans settled centuries ago, Spain of the 
700-year occupation by Moorish conquerors, 
and busy modern Spain dotted here and 
there with isolated communities where yes- 
terday's ways have changed but little over 
the centuries — all these are made vivid in 
Kamen's comprehensive color-film and nar- 
rative. The film is a remarkably thorough 
survey of the story of a great nation. The 



DINOSAUR NIGHT 
Tuesday, March 27 



THESE LECTURES ON SATURDAYS; 
TWO OTHERS ON SUNDAYS 

The Museum wishes to empha- 
size that the lectures announced 
on this page will be given on 
Saturday afternoons. A brief 
notice in the last Bulletin stating 
that there would be Sunday after- 
noon lectures in March and April 
referred only to March 18 and 
April 22, when the Illinois Audu- 
bon Society will present lectures 
in the Museum. 

No tickets are needed for either 
the Museum's Saturday lectures 
or the Audubon Sunday lectures. 
Members of the Museum are each 
entitled to two reserved seats. 
Reservations may be made by 
telephone (WAbash 2-9410) or in 
writing. Seats will be held in the 
Member's name until 2:25 p.m. 



March, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



Alhambra in Granada, quaint old Seville, 
medieval castles, and a festival in the Basque 
country where the inhabitants hold to old 
and unique traditions are features of in- 
terest. 

April 7 — The Challenge of Everest 

Norman G. Dyhrenfurth 

Dyhrenfurth's film of an attempt to scale 
the forbidding giant of the Himalayas has 
been acclaimed as one of the most spec- 
tacular ever produced. The lecturer was 
official photographer of the second Everest 
Expedition (1952) that climbed to within 
900 feet of the long-sought summit. Ten- 
zing Norkay of Sir John Hunt's later 
successful British expedition was a member 
of the Swiss party, and the experience 
gained was credited with being a large factor 
in the final conquest of the peak. Dyhren- 
furth's lecture and film combine to tell 
a fascinating story of intrepid mountaineers 
desperately battling enormous glaciers, 
steep icy slopes, and freezing gales. 

April 14 — Saga of the Swamplands 

Earl L. Hilfiker 

If you like to commune with nature, this 
film will stir memories and let you relive 
cherished days and nights when you sat in 
duckblinds or poled an old flatbottomed 
boat on a meandering stream between solid 
green walls of cattails. If you have never 
done these things, Hilfiker's film and lecture 
will introduce you to a fascinating segment 
of the world of out-of-doors. You will see 
a dead marsh come alive with a chorus of 
frogs and peepers, while geese by the thou- 
sands and ducks by the tens of thousands 
wing their way to feed and rest during their 
migration toward their northern breeding 
grounds. 

April 21 — Penguin Summer 

Olin Sewall Pettingill, Jr. 

Penguins, those comical seabirds that 
seem to be nature's caricatures of men, are 
seldom seen except in zoos because they 
dwell and nest in some of the most in- 
accessible lands of the southern hemisphere. 
Dr. Pettingill 's movie and lecture take you 
to a colony of 100,000 or more penguins in 
the Falkland Islands, 300 miles east of the 
southern tip of South America. Three 
species — gentoo, rockhopper, and jackass 
penguins — are the film's featured players. 
All are social birds, nesting in communities 
that are in constant and dramatic turmoil. 
Courtship and family rearing are conducted 
with the deadpan seriousness of circus 
clowns. Juvenile penguins romp and play, 
annoy their parents, and are so completely 
fascinated by human beings that they fol- 
low them around. 

April 28 — Blizzards to Blossoms 

William Parsons 

A large part of this film is devoted to the 
blizzard of 1952 that almost buried the state 



of Maine. Not only are the scenes of this 
terrific storm recorded on the film, but even 
the fearful sound of the vicious wind and the 
crashing of trees and houses are heard from 
an accompanying tape recording. What 
a blizzard can do to man and beasts is shown 
in a gripping demonstration of nature's fury 
and force that most people would prefer to 
experience in the comfort of the lecture 
auditorium rather than on the scene. Ten- 
sion is relieved by sequences of the beauty 
and beneficence of nature in her gentler 
moods with the coming of spring to the 
north country. 



DINOSAUR NIGHT 

Tuesday, March 27 



Audubon Lecture March 18 
on Bird Conservation 

"The Long Flight Back," a lecture by 
Robert P. Allen, Research Director of the 
National Audubon Society, will be presented 
at 2:30 p.m. on Sunday, March 18, in the 
James Simpson Theatre of the Museum 
under the auspices of the Illinois Audubon 
Society. Allen, a leader in the movement 
to preserve birds from the fate that befell 
the lamented passenger pigeon, will tell the 
story of "returning wings"- — birds such as 
the whooping crane, roseate spoonbill, and 
American flamingo that had been threatened 
with extinction but are now being aided in 
survival by conservation measures. His 
notable color-film of wildlife from the Carib- 
bean to northern Canada shows, among 
many other birds, the now abundant Ameri- 
can egrets and their relatives that have been 
saved from extinction. 

Seats in the reserved section of the audi- 
torium are free to Members of the Museum 
and of the Illinois Audubon Society upon 
presentation of their membership cards. 

Final lecture in the Audubon series will be 
"Rhapsody in Bluegrass" by Walter H. 
Shackleton on Sunday afternoon, April 22. 



STAFF NOTES 



Using the resources of the Missouri 
Botanical Garden during a recent visit to 
St. Louis, Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, Cu- 
rator of the Phanerogamic Herbarium, has 
been continuing his studies of Missouri flora. 
Curator Steyermark has also had a stren- 
uous lecture schedule, relating his Ven- 
ezuelan "lost world" expedition experiences 
before audiences at Washington University 
and Henry Shaw School of Botany in St. 
Louis as well as the Chicago Ornithological 
Society, Barrington Lions Club, and Evans- 
ton Garden Club and talking on wildflowers 
before the Lake Bluff Garden Club and the 
Downers Grove Garden Club .... Dr. Paul 



PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN 

ON NINE SATURDAYS 

Eight free programs of motion pictures 
and a puppet show will be given for children 
on the nine Saturdays in March and April. 
On four of the film programs the explorers 
who did the camera work will appear to tell 
their stories in person. The programs, pre- 
sented by the James Nelson and Anna 
Louise Raymond Foundation, will all begin 
at 10:30 a.m. Children are invited to 
attend in groups from schools, clubs, or other 
centers, or they may come individually, with 
or without their parents or other adults. No 
tickets are needed. Following are the titles 
and dates. 

March 3 — North to Adventure (Alaska) 

Story told by Fred Machetanz 

March 10 — Below the Sahara 

A technicolor picture made on African 
safari to find and photograph, not to 
kill, animals 

March 17 — Northern and Western 
Australia 

Story told by Alfred M. Bailey 

March 24 — Spring Is an Adventure 

A look at the out-of-doors in the spring 

March 31 — Bible Lands 

April 7 — In the Circus Arena 

A close-up view of the circus with all its 
exciting acts and animals 

April 14 — The Little House by the Creek 

Living close to Mother Nature's children 
Story told by Earl L. Hilfiker 

April 21 — Wild Animals in India 

Story told by John Moyer 

April 28 — The Amazing Voyage of Nicky 
Noodle 

Puppet stage-production by Coleman Pup- 
pets, Maywood, Illinois 



New Contributors Elected 

In recognition of notable gifts to the 
Museum, Wm. McCormick Blair and 
Hughston M. McBain, eminent Chicagoans, 
were recently elected Museum Contributors 
by the Board of Trustees. Contributors are 
a special membership class including all 
whose gifts in funds or materials are valued 
at $1,000 to $100,000. 



S. Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology, 
recently appeared in the series "Visits with 
Interesting People" at the Central Y.M.C.A. 
in Chicago .... Dr. John B. Rinaldo, 
Assistant Curator of Archaeology, spoke on 
careers in anthropology before an assemblage 
of students at Lyons Township High School 
in La Grange. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



March, 1956 



NATURE PHOTO CONTEST 
WINNERS NAMED 

Stanley Field Hall was a busy place last 
month as throngs of people came to view 
photographs of animals, plants, and scenic 
phenomena at the Eleventh Chicago Inter- 
national Exhibition of Nature Photography. 
More than 200 prints were displayed in the 



DINOSAUR NIGHT 

Tuesday, March 27 




HYDRANGEA 
By William L. Van Allen, of Bend, Oregon. Awarded 
first-prize silver medal in Plant-Life Section of Na- 
ture Photography Exhibition. 

exhibition hall, and more than 800 color 
transparencies were shown to the public on 
the screen of the James Simpson Theatre 
on two Sunday afternoons. The prints and 
slides were selected from more than 3,700 
entries sent to the Museum and to the Na- 
ture Camera Club of Chicago, co-sponsors. 
Prints and slides for this exhibition, the 
largest nature-photography show held any- 
where, were received from amateur and pro- 




fessional photographers all over the world. 
Six contestants won silver medals, and 111 
honorable mentions were awarded, seventeen 
of them to Chicago-area residents. Two 
special medals were awarded by the Photo- 
graphic Society of America for color har- 
mony in color-transparencies. Following 
are names of entrants who received silver 
medals and honorable-mention awards: 

MEDAL WINNERS 
Prints: 

Animal-Life Section: Leslie Campbell, Belcher- 
town, Mass. — Evening Grosbeak 

Plant-Life Section: William L. Van Allen, Bend, 
Ore. — Hydrangea 

General Section: Mrs. Gertrude L. Pool, Palo Alto, 
Calif.— The Blizzard 

Color Slides: 

Animal-Life Section: S. G. Blakesley, Merced, 
Calif. — Mocker 

Plant-Life Section: Mrs. Mabel Fuller, Riverside, 
111. — Clinlonia 

General Section: M. Hilo Himeno, Madison, N.J. 
— Lava Flow 

HONORABLE MENTIONS 

Chicago Area 
Prints: 

Animal-Life Section: Ted Farrington 
Plant -Life Section: Louise K. Broman, Louis A. 
Schulz 

General Section: John S. Bajgert, Lillian Ettinger 




THE BLIZZARD 

By Gertrude L. Pool, of Palo Alto, California. 

Awarded first-prize silver medal in General Section 

of Nature Photography Exhibition. 



EVENING GROSBEAK 

By Leslie Campbell, of Belchertown, Massachusetts. 

Awarded first-prize silver medal in Animal-Life 

Section of Nature Photography Exhibition. 

Color Slides: 

Animal-Life Section: W. J. Javurek 

Plant-Life Section: Mary Abele, J. H. Boulet, Jr., 
Willard H. Farr, Ethel P. Owen, Dr. Frank E. Rice 

General Section: Henry Krull, M. J. Schmidt, 
Anne E. Stroh, Phyllis Wolgemuth 

Outside Chicago Area 
Prints: 

Animal-Life Section: Nevrouw Van den Bussche, 
Antwerp, Belgium; W. T. Davidson, Warren, Pa.; 
James Ford, Louisville, Ky.; John H. Gerard, Alton, 
III.; H. Lou Gibson, Rochester, N.Y.; Dr. Gerhard 
Graeb, Cologne, Germany; Mrs. Harold Kuhlman, 
Oklahoma City , Okla. ; Robert Leatherman, San Bernar- 



EXPEDITION TO EXCAVATE 
ANCIENT PERU SITES 

The Museum's first expedition of 1956 is 
under way. It is the Archaeological Ex- 
pedition to Peru, which will seek material 
both for new Museum exhibits and for 
research that will be the basis of future 
publication on development of urban life 
in prehistoric times. The leader, Dr. Donald 
Collier, Curator of South American Archae- 
ology and Ethnology, left Chicago on 
February 4 by air for Lima, where he was 
joined by Don Thompson, a Harvard 
graduate-student in archaeology. A group 
of local helpers was organized, and field 
operations were begun at the sites of ancient 
civilization to be excavated in the Casma 
Valley near the coast, about 200 miles north 
of Lima. 

Excavation of these sites, which were 
occupied from about 1000 B.C. to A.D. 1470, 
both before and during the time of the Incas, 
will continue for about seven months. The 
expedition is financed by a grant from the 
National Science Foundation. 



dino, Calif.; Charles J. Long, San Antonio, Tex.; 
Charles J. Ott, McKinley Park, Alaska; R. W. Poulter, 
Horicon, Wis.; Dr. Olof Theander, Stockholm, Sweden; 
G. H. Wagner, Omaha, Neb. 

Plant-Life Section: Cy Coleman, Detroit, Mich.; 
Rudolph G. Flores, Los Angeles, Calif.; Otto Litzel, 
New York, N.Y.; Dr. Carrol C. Turner, Memphis, 
Tenn. 

General Section: Otto Litzel, New York, N.Y.; 
George J. Munz, Bergenfield, N.J.; Edward A. Nus- 
baum, Richmond, Ind.; Mrs. Gertrude L. Pool, Palo 
Alto, Calif.; Leonard Lee Rue, Columbia, N.J.; Henry 
W. Ryffer, San Diego, Calif. 

Color Slides: 

Animal-Life Section: George Clemens, McConnels- 
ville, Ohio; Alford W. Cooper, Worland, Wyo.; Bernice 
Foster, Worcester, Mass.; Charles B. Harris, Merced, 
Calif.; Torrey Jackson, Marblehead, Mass.; Ted John- 
son, Worthington, Minn.; B. J. Kaston, New Britain, 
Conn.; Eugenie Manheim, New York, N.Y.; Harry W. 
Pike, Springfield, 111.; Louis Quitt, Buffalo, N.Y.; 
George W. Robinson, Merced, Calif.; Arthur H. 
Rosien, White Plains, N.Y.; Dr. Fred Ruch, Plainfield, 
N.J.; Mrs. Irma Louise Rudd, Redondo Beach, Calif.; 
Le Roi Russel, Prescott, Ariz.; Frances Steffensen, 
Omaha, Neb.; J. R. Swain, Winsted, Conn.; Grace 
Thompson, El Paso, Tex.; H. A. Thornhill, Watertown, 
N.Y.; Burdette E. White, Ferris, Calif.; Robert Leath- 
erman, San Bernardino, Calif. 

Plant-Life Section: Dr. Blanche E. Burton, To- 
ronto, Canada; J. Campbell, Coal City, 111.; William 
I. Campbell, Guelph, Ontario, Canada; Ellen Cubitt, 
Toronto, Canada; E. J. Flesher, Pittsburgh, Pa.; H. L. 
Gebhardt, Erie, Pa.; J. E. Goodwin, Toronto, Canada; 
Henry Greenhood, Hollywood, Calif.; Ferrel W. Hess- 
ing, St. Louis, Mo.; Harry G. Hoke, Stillwater, Okla.; 
Jim Huber, St. Joseph, Mich.; Safford L. Jory, Berkeley, 
Calif.; Adolph Kohnert, Amenia, N.Y.; Henry M. 
Mayer, Cleveland, Ohio; E. L. O'Brien, Peoria, 111.; 
J. B. Pearson, Mt. Vernon, Ohio; C. H. Pulver, Vestal, 
N.Y.; Jack Roche, Caldwell, N.J.; Hoyt L. Roush, 
Charlotte, N.C.; John H. Tashjian, Oakland, Calif.; 
Grace Thompson, El Paso, Tex.; William L. Van Allen, 
Bend, Ore.; N. E. Weber, Bowmansville, Pa.; M. V. 
Westmark, Minneapolis, Minn. 

General Section: K. F. Blakie, Los Angeles, Calif.; 
Beatrice Bruin, Toronto, Canada; Raymond Feagans, 
Bremerton, Wash.; H. E. Foote, New York, N.Y.; 
H. Gantner, New York, N.Y.; Katherine Jensen, 
Pittsford, N.Y.; R. H. Kleinschmidt, Rochester, N.Y.; 
J. A. Krimmel, Denver, Colo.; Smith MacMullin, 
Los Angeles, Calif.; C. R. McLead, Raleigh, N.C.; 
J. O. Milmoe, Golden, Colo.; Ruth J. Nicol, Butte, 
Mont.; Bernard G. Purves, Glendora, Calif.; Richard 
F. Smith, Lititz, Pa.; Ruby Watters, Toronto, Canada; 
Otto Litzel, New York, N.Y. 

SPECIAL MEDALS FOR COLOR SLIDES 

(Awarded by the Photographic Society of America) 
Otto Litzel, New York, N.Y. — Frozen Brook 
Benjamin Koehler, Urbana, 111. — Obsidian and Lt- 
chens 

PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 




Vol.27.No.4-April-1956 

Chicago Natural 
History Mus e um 



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Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



April, 1956 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henby P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery Hughston M. McBain 

W». McCormick Blair William H. Mitchell 

Waltheb Bochen John T. Pirie. Jr. 

Walter J. Cummings Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

Samuel Insull, Jr. John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Hughston M. McBain Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field TMrd Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 



THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. H arte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Jane Rockwell 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



EXHIBIT OF DINOSAURS 
INSPIRES VERSES 

Dinosaur Night, held March 27 to give 
Members of the Museum a preview of the 
new exhibit of Gorgosaurus and Lambeo- 
saurus skeletons in Stanley Field Hall, in- 
spired a member of the Department of 
Geology staff to produce the following verses : 

The World's First Self-Supporting Dinosaur 
By Eugene S. Richardson, Jr. 

Come and see the Gorgosaurus, 
Tall as life, though somewhat thinner, 
Standing in the hall before us, 
Interrupted in his dinner. 

Hundred million years ago, he 
Found a Lambeosaur to munch on. 
Something stopped his feast, and so he 
Never had that final luncheon 

Long ago (the date, Cretaceous) 
Gorgosaurus roamed Alberta 
Ever hungry, fierce, voracious, 
Seeking smaller prey to murder. 

Then he died, became a fossil 
Buried near the Red Deer River; 
Passed the years asleep and docile. 
Giving not a jerk or quiver. 

Found and shipped to the Museum 
With that meal he never tasted, 



Here he stands and here you see him; 
Not a bone of him was wasted. 

Other skeletons of his bulk 
Must be held erect by crutches; 
Not a post is seen on this hulk — 
Just the floor is all he touches. 

Engineers may well be baffled 
By the structure we're reporting: 
Here he stands without a scaffold; 
Gorgosaur is self-supporting! 

The new dinosaur group is now open to 
the public as a permanent exhibit. The 
Gorgosaurus specimen, extremely rare, is 
a gift to the Museum from the Trustees. 
The Lambeosaurus skeleton was collected 
in 1922 by an expedition sponsored by 
Marshall Field, now First Vice President of 
the Museum. 



principal technician in the actual assem- 
blage of the skeletons, will appear with 
specimens of bones and demonstrate various 
stages of the work. 



GORGOSAURUS STORY 

ON CHANNEL 11 

The story of the Museum's new exhibit 
of the giant skeletons of Gorgosaurus and 
Lambeosaurus, and a brief survey of the 
subject of dinosaurs in general, will be 
presented by members of the Museum's 
scientific staff over WTTW, Chicago's 
educational television station (Channel 11) 
on Tuesday, April 3 at 9:30 p.m. The 
program is in the series given under the 
general title "The Curious One." Dr. 
Rainer Zangerl, Curator of Fossil Am- 
phibians and Reptiles, who supervised the 
erection of the skeletons in the Museum, and 
Dr. Eugene S. Richardson, Jr., Curator of 
Fossil Invertebrates, will discuss dinosaurs, 
and demonstrate with models, motion pic- 
tures and other material. Orville L. Gilpin, 
Chief Preparator of Fossils, who was the 



Audubon Sunday Lecture 
Set for April 22 

"Rhapsody in Bluegrass" is the title of 
the final lecture in the Illinois Audubon 
Society's series for the current season at 
Chicago Natural History Museum. Walter 
H. Shackleton, naturalist of Louisville, 
Kentucky, is the lecturer. He will present 
a color film screen-tour of his native state. 
The lecture will be on Sunday afternoon, 
April 22, at 2:30 in the James Simpson 
Theatre of the Museum. 

Seats in the reserved section of the 
Theatre are free to Members of the Museum 
and of the Illinois Audubon Society upon 
presentation of their membership cards. 



Indochina Bronze Drum 
Presented to Museum 

Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, Curator Emeritus 
of Zoology, and M. Kenneth Starr, Curator 
of Asiatic Archaeology and Ethnology, 
recently accepted, for the Museum, a rare 
bronze fertility drum from Northern Laos, 
Indochina, presented by Oden Meeker, 
Mission Chief of Laos for CARE, on behalf 
of the CARE organization. Dr. Schmidt 
and Mr. Starr accepted the gift during 
a reception March 13 commemorating the 
tenth anniversary of CARE held in Chicago 
recently. Mr. Meeker served for several 
summers as a volunteer assistant to Dr. 
Schmidt in the Museum's Division of 
Reptiles. 



THIS MONTHS COVER- 



To anyone who suspects an April First prank in our cover, we quote the late Dr. 
Earnest A. Hooton of Harvard, a famed anthropologist, who said that if fossil man were 
dressed in contemporary clothing he might be passed on the street without being 
identified or attracting any unusual attention. In order that readers may draw their 
own conclusions on this point, Artist Gustaf Dalstrom of the Museum's Department of 
Anthropology has dressed four prehistoric types in opera capes and top hats. These fossil 
"men of distinction" are: Pithecanthropus erecius (lower left) who lived in Java perhaps 
150,000 or 300,000 years ago; Sinanthropus pekinensis (lower right) who lived in China 
at about the same period; Homo Neanderthalensis (upper left) who lived in Europe 
about 30,000 or 50,000 years ago, and Cro-Magnon man, an European type of some 
10,000 or 20,000 years ago. The drawings are based upon reconstructions: that of 
Sinanthropus made by the late Dr. Franz Weidenreich who was associated with the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, and the other three by Professor 
J. H. McGregor, a Columbia University zoologist who was associated with the American 
Museum. These reconstructions are on exhibition in the Hall of the Stone Age of the 
Old World (Hall C). A further comment of Dr. Hooton's is pertinent: "We do not 
know anything of the minutiae of the appearance of the Pithecanthropus .... or 
Neanderthal types. We have no knowledge of their hair form, hair distribution, 
pigmentation .... You can with equal facility model on a Neanderthal skull the 
features of a chimpanzee or the lineaments of a philosopher." 



April, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 3 



PROBLEMS OF CONSERVATION IN THE GREAT LAKES 



By LOREN P. WOODS 

CURATOR OF FISHES 



THERE EXIST, in Lake Michigan, and 
in the other Great Lakes, numerous 
complex problems of conservation as im- 
portant as any in the United States today. 
The history of Lake Michigan fisheries re- 
flects our lack of knowledge of the lake en- 
vironment as a whole and the interactions 
of the whole assemblage of animals living 
here. The lake fisheries show effects of lack 
of proper use in the diminishing over-all 
catch and in the depletion to a point of 
non-profitable commercial exploitation of 
three of the most valuable Lake Michigan 
species: sturgeon, lake trout, and whitefish. 
The total amount of fish produced by the 
United States waters of the Great Lakes 




Its surface area is 22,400 square miles 
(about the size of West Virginia) and the 
median depth is 258 feet. It is clear, deep, 
and cold. 

The lake environment appears to be 
fairly uniform throughout the year. 
Changes of temperature and turbidity 
affect only the surface layers and waters 
near shore. Below 350 feet the temperature 
is only a few degrees above freezing at all 
times. The volume of the lake is relatively 
constant, the fluctuation level being only 
x /i to l)-£ feet in the course of a year, with 
an extreme periodic fluctuation of 6 feet, 
4 inches. The currents vary in strength 
between 4 and 90 miles per day. Winds 
affect the surface and shoals causing large 
upwellings of cold water from the bottom 




shore, principally for whitefish and lake 
trout. In the 1850's pound nets came into 
use, and as a result of a reported fall-off 
in production in 1871 the first survey of 
fisheries was made. The decrease in fisheries 
production during the years 1858 to 1872 
was estimated to be 50 per cent, principally 
affecting the lake trout and whitefish. The 
decline was blamed on: (1) capture of im- 
mature fishes by pound nets; (2) lost gill 
nets; (3) practice of fishermen of throwing 
offal on fishing ground, and (4) pollution 
from sawdust, slabs, sidings, etc. floating 
widely over the lake. 

The first to go was the lake sturgeon, 
regarded as a pest by the early fishermen 
because sturgeon frequently became en- 
tangled in the nets. They were removed 




LAKE TROUT WHITEFISH LAKE STURGEON 

Probably millions of the people who have eaten these three fishes have never seen what they looked like before they reach the table. 



fluctuates between 75 and 100 million 
pounds per year. In dollar value these 
fisheries are of considerable importance, 
averaging around fifteen million dollars — 
equivalent in value to that of the Pacific 
sardine industry when that fishery was at 
its peak. The lake trout, backbone of the 
lake fisheries, formerly yielded 10 million 
pounds annually. This was worth $4,000,000, 
equal to the dollar value of the U. S. codfish 
industry. The lake trout fishery is now 
gone from Lakes Huron and Michigan and 
is in a precarious state in Lake Superior. 

It is obvious that extensive fisheries, near 
such concentrations of population as border 
the lakes, are of prime importance because 
of their food value as well as their dollar 
value. The decline or loss of part of this 
resource concerns us all. Numerous other 
benefits are derived from the lakes: their 
effect on the climate of the bordering states, 
their use as water supplies and as power 
sources for cities and industry, their value 
as shipping lanes, their advantages as 
sources of recreation for residents and 
tourists. Sound fishing policies need to be 
co-ordinated with these other uses. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKE MICHIGAN 

The basin of Lake Michigan is a long, 
narrow trough scooped out by the action of 
ice during the last (Wisconsin) glaciation. 
In years it is not very ancient, probably 
only 10,000 or 11,000 years old, having been 
its present size for less than 4,000 years. 



layers but only rarely is there more than 
a mild effect in the deeper waters. Two 
important effects of the wind are on shore 
erosion and in occasionally breaking up the 
summer temperature stratification. 

Lake Michigan has had the highest pro- 
duction per unit of area of the four deep 
members of the Great Lakes chain. This 
is due to the high production of Green Bay 
that formerly contributed between one- 
fourth and one-third, and now contributes 
from 60 to 70 per cent of the total Lake 
Michigan fishes caught commercially. 
Although it has maintained its second place 
position (Lake Erie is first) in commercial 
fish production, Lake Michigan suffered 
a decline of 45 per cent during the 50-year 
period from 1891 to 1940. 

OTHER LAKES LESS DEPLETED 

The per cent of decrease in production in 
the other lakes, though marked, has been 
much less (Erie 16, Huron 23, Superior 9). 
These figures are from years before the 
appearance of the sea lamprey and the 
disappearance of the lake trout or decline 
of the whitefish. 

The problem is not one simply of over- 
fishing if that ever were the reason, but also 
probably of selective fishing. Accounts by 
some early explorers of Indian fishing in the 
northern part of the lake and by settlers as 
late as 1835 indicate an unbelievable abun- 
dance of fishes. Prior to 1850 fishing was 
largely by gill nets and large seines along 



from the lake and piled on the beaches or 
buried. The fishery for sturgeon began 
around 1870, taking 10,000 to 20,000 fish 
per year. In 1885, 8 million pounds were 
taken. Thereafter they declined rapidly and 
have not been commercially important 
during the 20th century. 

BROAD FLUCTUATION 

Since World War I, annual production of 
Lake Michigan has fluctuated widely: the 
least amount, 16 million (1923) and the 
most, 35 million (1929). In 1952, production 
reached 32 million pounds without the lake 
trout which formerly accounted for from 
4 to 6 million pounds of the Lake Michigan 
production. Thus it would appear that 
production was holding up fairly well, that 
an over-all decline is only temporary, and 
that there is no need to worry about the 
disappearance of one species as another will 
rise to take its place. This is certainly what 
seems to have happened. There have been 
considerable changes in rank of most 
abundant species through the years as the 
following tabulation shows: 

J 95 J 
Chubs 

Lake herring (cisco) 
Smelt 

Whitefish Chubs Perch 

Chubs Carp Whitefish 

Lake herring (cisco) Carp 

We note that by 1942 two introduced 
fishes (smelt and carp) are among the six 
more important species. By 1953 the chubs 



189S 191,2 

Herring Lake trout 

Lake trout Smelt 

Perch Perch 



^'tft^yy} '*•'•'*> \"'' *i , .vi* « • 'US+W i • r >.#♦.* v« rwt.t ».*v« •*».« • *\-« *■** .  tvi »-, 



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Page i- 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



April, 1 956 



and cisco replaced the trout. These changes 
plus the widely fluctuating annual produc- 
tion are of considerable concern. What are 
the ecological factors that have occurred 
allowing the less desirable fishes to become 
more plentiful as the more desirable ones 
grew scarce? 

SUSPECTED CAUSES 

Many causes for these changes have been 
set forth by fishermen, and by interested 
observers. The truth is, no one knows. The 
reasons for this lack of knowledge will be 
discussed later. First we will examine some 
of the suspected causes. 

1. Climatic changes have perhaps 
brought about hydrographic changes such 
as changes in volume. High lake levels, 
reaching 582 feet, are known in the years 
1917 and 1918. Fish production was also 
high during those years, 29.3 million and 
26.7 million pounds respectively. Lake 
levels decreased during the years 1920 to 
1926 (to 577.35 feet, low record) and during 
all these years fish production was at an 
all-time low. As the lake level went up, fish 
production reached its peak for recent years 
in 1929 and again in 1952, both high level 
years. The trouble with this correlation is 
that it takes a varying number of years 
(2 to 6) for the different species leading the 
catch to reach commercial size so the causal 
relations are obscure. Changes in extreme 
range of temperature, seasons, and amounts 
of ice may have some effect on the survival 
of young. 

2. Different types of fishing gear, regu- 
lations, and closed seasons have been tried. 
Here the fishery biologists have had the 
opportunity to actually test the type of gear 
and mesh size permitted and have done 
considerable checking on the effects of gear 
used. Their results did not indicate that 
the type of gear now in use is unduly waste- 
ful or harmful to desirable species. How- 
ever, the effect of selective fishing on the 
stock of the desired species and the effect on 
unexploited species or underexploited species 
of the same locality where the nets are set, 
has not been studied. 

3. Pollution has often been stated as 
a major cause for deterioration of fishing. 
Quite possibly pollution has driven the 
whitefish from local areas of southern Lake 
Michigan and contributes to the fluctuation 
in available numbers of this species. Pollu- 
tion in the form of sawdust, silt, and domes- 
tic and industrial sewage undoubtedly has 
influenced fish production, but to what 
extent is unknown. In southern Lake 
Michigan there was dumping of garbage, 
trash, and cinders, and large quantities of 
clay from excavations are still dumped. 
This material is carried in suspension so that 
it spreads over wide areas in the south basin 
of the lake covering the fishes' spawning and 
feeding grounds. The dumping of cinders 
from steamships and the pumping of oily 



bilge into the lake also have sometimes had 
local and temporary effects, but probably 
have not greatly changed the entire ecologi- 
cal complex in the lake. It is doubtful that 
the total biological production of the lake 
has ever declined significantly because of 
pollution or that total fish production has 
declined for this reason alone. Possibly 
certain species have been adversely affected 
by pollution but I know of no studies 
proving pollution has harmed fishing in the 
lake as a whole. 

3. Exotic species: Since World War II 
there has been a great amount of publicity 
given to the sea lamprey and its detrimental 
effect on the lake trout and other species. 
The whitefish had already disappeared from 




RESEARCH VESSEL 'CISCO' 

In 1954 and 1955 this ship of the U. S. Fish and 

Wildlife Service made a number of cruises on Lake 

Michigan collecting materials and data for studies 

of fishery and hydrographic conditions. 

Lake Huron by the time the lamprey 
appeared in large numbers. In the 1920's 
the cisco disappeared from Lake Erie. Very 
likely the sea lamprey is the principal cause 
for the disappearance of the trout, other 
factors being trap net fishing, rise and 
decline of smelt, appearance of the alewife, 
disease, etc. We are assured that means of 
controlling the sea lamprey are available 
and it is only a matter of time until this pest 
is no longer the destructive agent it was 
between 1940 and 1955. 

Several other species of fishes are estab- 
lished that were not in Lake Michigan in 
any numbers before 1900. Probably the 
most abundant of these is the smelt, which 
became established throughout Lake Michi- 
gan by 1936 (see Bulletin, March, 1954). 
By 1942 smelt production reached 3.5 mil- 
lion pounds and then the fish died out in 
1943, gradually recovering until now more 
are taken annually than in the former peak 
year of 1942. Smelt were one of the princi- 
pal foods of the lake trout. The effect of the 
decline of smelt on lake trout is not known. 
The presence of the carp is an unknown 
factor in the lake. Most likely its effect is 
important only in very shoal waters, bays, 
lagoons, and along shores. 

The effect of the rainbow trout, introduced 



and established in the northern end of the 
lake, is unknown. Its numbers are not 
large and its effect, if any, probably small. 

The alewife has recently invaded and 
become established in Lake Michigan but 
its numbers are unknown. It is considered 
to be a menace because it competes for food 
with the lake herring and with young fishes. 

Two other exotic species, the eel and 
Atlantic shad, have been reported in Lake 
Michigan but very likely are not estab- 
lished here. 

Enough has been said to delineate the 
gradual change in the fish fauna of Lake 
Michigan. Some kinds are reduced in 
numbers, some kinds, especially the smaller 
species (smelt, chubs), have become ex- 
ceedingly abundant. Kinds new to the lake 
have entered the scene resulting in new 
predators (sea lamprey, rainbow trout), in 
new food sources for the fishes (smelt, 
alewife), and in new competitors for food 
(smelt, alewife). 

OVER-ALL survey needed 

The principal need of the fisheries is an 
over-all study of the lake, a complete 
limnological survey to determine total 
biological productivity. Such a study 
should analyze communities rather than in- 
dividual species, and should include studies 
of the environment and its seasonal changes. 
Particularly there is a need to study the 
interactions among species — how each is 
affected by changing environmental condi- 
tions as well as by selective fishing pressure. 
Recently, a comprehensive survey was made 
by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service staff 
on their research vessel Cisco, working in 
the southern half of Lake Michigan in 1954 
and the northern half in 1955. This work 
should be continued for a number of years. 
Such background studies are needed to 
learn the inner workings of the lake and 
the factors that influence the sudden abun- 
dance or scarcity of particular species. The 
central need in the lakes is for biological 
understanding based on adequate factual 
information. This can only be arrived at by 
a long-term biological survey. 

There is an immediate need to develop 
an educational program that follows closely 
with the development of a research program. 
Particularly we need an enlarged basic re- 
search program. A backlog of basic infor- 
mation will help in meeting the problems 
that will arise with the completion of the 
St. Lawrence Seaway such as continuing 
invasion by lampreys, alewives and white 
perch, and the problems of increasing 
industrial expansion with its increased 
pollution. 

The various states surrounding the lake 
have generally concerned themselves with 
their inland waters and only occasionally 
contributed staff and funds to Lake Michi- 
gan studies. The Fish and Wildlife Service 
has been restrained in its research program 



April, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



by reduced and fluctuating budgets, a small 
staff and lack of oceanographic equipment. 
Recently however a beginning has been 
made by the Fish and Wildlife Service 
along several lines. In 1953 the Fish and 
Wildlife research vessel Cisco began work in 
Lake Superior on the lamprey and lake 
trout. In 1954 the Cisco was in Lake 
Michigan studying chubs to see if this 
species was becoming stunted or poor. 

INSTITUTE ESTABLISHED 

Recently, the Great Lakes Research In- 
stitute was established at the University of 
Michigan to promote basic research par- 
ticularly in Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan 
and Superior. Associated with the Great 
Lakes Research Institute is the Great Lakes 
Research Committee of Canada. 

In January, 1956, the Great Lakes Com- 
mission was established by the states bor- 
dering the lakes "to promote the orderly, 
integrated and comprehensive development, 
use, and conservation of the water resources 
of the Great Lakes Basin." 

In addition to the Great Lakes Com- 
mission consisting of the border states, there 
recently was established a Great Lakes 
Fishery Commission between the United 
States and Canada. The commission will 
have as one of its major activities the 
application of sea lamprey control. In 
addition it is expected that this Fishery 
Commission will co-ordinate many of the 
disjointed efforts to do research on the 
Great Lakes. 

Previous attempts to carry on large-scale 
basic research on the lakes have failed 
largely because of a lack of strong, active, 
organized leadership. This need appears to 
have been met. Now the need is for sup- 
port. To date only minimal amounts of 
money have been allotted to government 
agencies for research on the lakes and these 
allotments principally for investigation of 
some immediate critical problem such as 
sea lamprey control. The establishment of 
organizations devoted to research on the 
lakes should have as one function that 
of educating the public at large and thereby 
gaining support and funds for furthering 
basic research. 

Effective conservation measures for the 
Great Lakes fisheries can be brought 
about only when there is international and 
interstate agreement regarding regulations, 
gathering of statistics, and co-ordinated 
research. 



formerly employed in a similar capacity in 
a business concern. 

Mr. Krueger left the Museum's employ 
to accept a commercial position. 



Acting Auditor Appointed 

Miss Marion K. Hoffman has been ap- 
pointed Acting Auditor of the Museum, due 
to the vacancy occurring with the recent 
resignation of Robert A. Krueger, Auditor. 

Miss Hoffman joined the Museum staff 
in 1952 as Bookkeeper, and was promoted 
to Assistant Auditor in 1955. She was 



LECTURES FOR ADULTS 
ON FOUR SATURDAYS 

Four illustrated lectures on travel and 
science remain to be given on Saturday 
afternoons during April in the spring series 
provided by the Edward E. Ayer Lecture 
Foundation Fund. These lectures all begin 
at 2:30 p.m., and are presented in the James 
Simpson Theatre of the Museum. Ad- 
mission is free, and no tickets are required. 
While only adults can be accommodated, the 
Raymond Foundation provides free enter- 
tainment for children on the mornings of 
the same Saturdays. 

Members of the Museum are each 
entitled to two reserved seats at all 
lectures. Reservations may be made 
by telephone (WAbash 2-9410) or in 
writing. Seats will be held in the Mem- 
ber's name until 2:25 p.m. 

Following are the dates, subjects, and 
lecturers in the adult series: 

April 7 — The Challenge of Everest 

Norman G. Dyhrenfurth 

April 14 — Saga of the Swamplands 

Earl L. Hilfiker 

April 21 — Penguin Summer 

Olin Sewall Petlingill, Jr. 

April 28 — Blizzards to Blossoms 

William Parsons 



Daily Guide Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered daily 
except Sundays under the title "Highlights 
of the Exhibits." These tours are designed 
to give a general idea of the entire Museum 
and its scope of activities. They begin at 
2 p.m. on Monday through Friday and at 
2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 

Special tours on subjects within the range 
of the Museum exhibits are available Mon- 
days through Fridays for parties of ten or 
more persons. Requests for such service 
must be made at least one week in advance. 



Venezuelan Botanist Here 

Leandro Aristeguieta, botanist at the 
Institute Botanico of the Ministerio de 
Agricultura y Cria in Caracas, Venezuela, 
has come to the United States for two years 
to study the Compositae (Sunflower Family) 
as represented in Venezuela. 

Mr. Aristeguieta, after studies at the 
New York Botanical Garden and the 
Smithsonian Institution in Washington, is 
now engaged in work on collections at 
Chicago Natural History Museum, and 
consulting with Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, 
Curator of the Phanerogamic Herbarium. 



EXHIBIT TELLS THE FACTS 
ABOUT CROCODILIANS 

The Museum's program of exhibition of 
crocodilians — the group including alligators, 
caimans, crocodiles, and gavials — began in 
1923 with the Marshall Field Expedition to 
Central America. One of the prime purposes 
of the field party, which consisted of Dr. 
Karl P. Schmidt, Curator Emeritus of 
Zoology, and former Taxidermist Leon 
Walters, was the gathering of materials for 
a habitat group of the American crocodile. 
The successful result of the trip was the 
excellent Lake Ticamaya habitat exhibit that 
has been on display in the Hall of Reptiles 
(Hall 18) since 1926. 

Two years later Mr. Walters went to 
southeastern Georgia and collected the 
female alligator and nest, which he made 
into one of the fascinating exhibits of the 
Hall of Reptiles. In the intervening years, 
two models of small Central American 
crocodilians have been prepared. 

A new screen on crocodilians, recently in- 
stalled, rounds out our exhibition of this 
ancient and interesting order of reptiles. 
Prepared by Taxidermist Ronald J. Lambert 
according to plans developed by the Division 
of Reptiles, this screen emphasizes those 
aspects of the biology of crocodilians not 
covered by other exhibits. About one-third 




SKULL OF MAN-EATER 
This specimen, decorated by Filipino tribesmen 
who killed the crocodile, now is featured in the 
center section of new exhibits in Albert W. Harris 
Hall (Hall 18). The small cut-outs convey an idea 
of the size range of crocodiles and relatives. 

of the screen is devoted to the basic adap- 
tations of the order to its aquatic environ- 
ment: propulsion by a flattened tail and 
exclusion of water from body openings by 
special valves. Another section presents 
some of the differences between crocodiles 
and alligators. Size, another topic that seems 
to interest the public, is also treated. And, 
finally, the question of man-eaters among 
the crocodiles is dealt with. 

Robert F. Inger 
Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



April, 1 956 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO 
GETS UNDER WAY 

By ROBERT F. INGER 

CURATOR OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES 

(Editor's Note: As part of the research pro- 
gram in the Department of Zoology, the Mu- 
seum has launched its 1956 Borneo Zoological 
Expedition. The expedition is in charge of 
Dr. Inger, writer of the following article, who 
left Chicago by plane on March 23.) 

THE MUSEUM sent its first expedition 
to North Borneo in 1950. The writer, 
who was a member of the earlier field party, 
will conduct the Borneo Zoological Expedi- 
tion of 1956. The work will again be done 
in the tropical rain forest that covers Borneo, 
and it is hoped that certain problems 
arising from the study of the collections and 




EVOLUTION OF HEAD-HUNTER'S 'ART' 
Since human head hunting has been suppressed in 
Borneo, the Dyak tribesmen keep their art alive 
by using the skulls of gibbons. This one was given 
to the Museum's 1950 Expedition by a Dyak. 

notes made in 1950 may now be solved. 
Operations will continue in North Borneo 
and Sarawak for approximately six months. 
The principal field activities will be the 
collecting and observing of reptiles, am- 
phibians, and fishes, especially as these 
relate to an understanding of the rain forest 
environment. Equipment and supplies 
were sent ahead at the end of January 
in order to reach Borneo approximately at 
the same time operations were scheduled 
to begin. 

A portable tape recorder is being used 
to record the calls of frogs and toads, 
because these sounds are significant in the 
classification of amphibians. An important 
segment of the equipment is that to establish 
a small weather station in the rain forest. 
A thermohumidigraph will make a con- 
tinuous record of temperature and humidity. 
A maximum-minimum thermometer set 
half-way up the trees will show how con- 
ditions differ from those closer to the ground. 
Since the work will be done in the rain forest, 
a rain gauge rounds out the meteorological 
equipment. 

But why this interest in tropical rain 



forests? For a biologist the answer is that 
this is the richest and most complex environ- 
ment in the world, and therefore the most 
fascinating and challenging natural labora- 
tory. For every human being a partial 
answer is a bit more difficult to state. 

About one-half of the world's forest area 
is tropical rain forest, characterized by an 
almost solid roof or canopy formed by the 
crowns of tall trees, by a small amount of 
undergrowth, and by dense shade and high 
humidity near ground level. Prior to the 
coming of white men, the great forests of 
our own Southeast had the same character- 
istics. But two climatic factors, continu- 
ously warm temperatures throughout the 
year and abundant rainfall in every month, 
typical only of parts of the tropics, enable 
the rain forest trees to retain their leaves 
the year around. Individual leaves fall all 
the time in this tropical forest, but they are 
being replaced continuously so that any 
single tree is always fully clothed. In 
effect, the tropical rain forest is an evergreen 
forest, though it should not be confused with 
the evergreen forests of our West and North. 
The tropical forest contains no conifers — no 
pines, junipers, firs, etc., — and its leaves are 
broad and not needle-like. 

The amount of living plant material in 
either our Southeastern deciduous forests or 
in a tropical rain forest such as covers 
Borneo, is immense. One log may weigh 
four tons and, if we add to it all the branches 
and leaves that are not weighed and then 
multiply by the many millions of trees 
within these forests, we would come out 
with some astronomical number. To pro- 
duce this mass of living matter the soil must 
be relatively rich in the minerals needed for 
good plant growth. We found that to be 
true when we cut down most of our South- 
eastern forests and planted regular farm 
crops. Similarly, whenever man cut the 
tropical rain forest and planted crops, the 
harvest was good, but only for one or at 
most two years. Then the unfortunate 
farmer — Bornean, African, or South Ameri- 
can Indian — had to move on to cut another 
patch of forest where he planted crops for 
a year or so before moving on to cut and 
plant elsewhere. 

RAPID SOIL DETERIORATION 

Why should this shifting kind of agri- 
culture be necessary? Is the tropical farmer 
incompetent? The answers lie in a natural 
process beyond man's control. The nutrient 
minerals are washed out of tropical soils by 
the heavy rains (more than 100 inches per 
year) and what remains is changed chemi- 
cally — literally cooked out — by the intense 
heat of the sun after the forest is removed. 
The same processes go on in the soils here, 
but at a much slower pace. It took 50 to 80 
years to exhaust the cotton lands in the 
South, a snail's pace compared to the rate 
in the tropics. 



Africa and Southeast Asia are areas in 
which the needs of rapidly increasing human 
populations will exert more and more pres- 
sure on the neighboring rain forests. But, 
as we have just seen, traditional agricul- 
tural techniques are proven failures in such 
areas. Whether man will learn to use these 
forested countries in a way that will insure 
long-range productivity is still unknown. 

Yet one thing seems certain: we will not 
master this problem without knowing 
a great deal more about tropical rain forests 
than we do at present. Whenever man has 
successfully adapted a culture to the cli- 
matic, geologic, and biological factors of 
a particular area, he has usually done so 
only after much trial and error, which in the 
long run means that he finally has accumu- 
lated a large body of information and has 
understood how all the facts fit together. 
In the tropics where the pace of erosion 
and soil deterioration is at least 25 times 
faster than in our country, man may not be 
allowed the luxury of trial and error. He 
had better have the information and com- 
prehension first. 

Chicago Natural History Museum, 
through its support of basic research in 
botany, geology, and zoology, contributes 
to man's knowledge and understanding of 
the world, including the rain forest. Off- 
hand, it would seem that a study of the 
classification of insects or the study of the 
feeding habits of this or that frog have little 
relationship to the problems of men. But 
the history of science is characterized by 
the sudden emergence into usefulness of 
information discovered long before anyone 
had any ideas about its application. In fact, 
the scientists gathering the information most 
likely had no concern at all with the appli- 
cation of this knowledge. And, because 
they pursued knowledge for knowledge's 
sake, they were probably called "impracti- 
cal," or referred to as "dreamers." 

PRACTICAL USE FOLLOWS 

In the long run, though, they turn out to 
be very practical men. For one of them 
studied the food habits of a little beetle that 
later was used to save California's citrus 
groves from destruction by the cottony 
cushion scale insect. Hundreds of biologists, 
the Museum's staff among them, have built 
up a framework of animal classification 
without which there could be no effective 
control of malaria, or plague, or any other 
animal-borne disease. 

Exactly how the notes and collection of 
snakes, lizards, frogs, and fishes of the 
Borneo Zoological Expedition, 1956, will 
eventually fit into our understanding of the 
rain forest is impossible to say now. But 
the Museum, like all institutions of basic 
research, is confident that to know is better 
than not to know, and that, in the world of 
science, what seems the longest way around 
is often the shortest road home. 



April, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



A 'HALL OF FAME' 
FOR FOSSIL MAN 

By GEORGE I. QUIMBY 

CURATOR OF NORTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 
AND ETHNOLOGY 

FOSSIL MAN'S Hall of Fame is a new 
exhibit in Hall C (Stone Age of the Old 
World) showing four famous human fossils: 
Java man (Pithecanthropus erectus); Peking 
man (Sinanthropus pekinensis); Neanderthal 
man {Homo neanderthalensis); and Cro- 
Magnon man (Homo sapiens). The fossil 
human types illustrated in the new exhibit 
were selected as far as possible in terms of 
the ideal criteria advocated by Professor 
S. L. Washburn of the University of Chicago. 
He says in the American Anthropologist 
(Vol. 56, No. 3, 1954, p. 438): "Ideally, there 
should be three or four individuals, both 
skulls and the rest of the skeleton, together 
with artifacts in a datable geological layer." 
Except for Java man who was not found 
directly associated with artifacts (tools and 
weapons) the four famous fossils more than 
meet the criteria of selection. 

JAVA MAN ONE OF OLDEST 

Java man (Pithecanthropus erectus), one 
of the oldest known fossil human types is 
represented by at least three adult skulls 
in fair shape and parts of the upper and 
lower jaws with a number of teeth. These 
remains were found in water-laid deposits 
in north central Java. Animal remains in 
this geological deposit are at present be- 
lieved to be of Middle Pleistocene age or 
slightly earlier. This would suggest that 
Pithecanthropus lived about 150,000 or 
300,000 years ago, according to geological 
estimates. 

An important physical characteristic of 
Pithecanthropus was the small brain esti- 
mated to have been from about 775 to 
a little over 900 cubic centimeters in 
volume. 

Although no stone tools were found with 
the remains of Pithecanthropus, recognizable 
implements of an early style have come from 
other geological deposits considered to be of 
equal antiquity in Java. 

FOUND IN CAVE DEPOSITS 

Peking man (Sinanthropus pekinensis), 
also one of the oldest fossil human types, 
is represented by the fragmentary remains 
of about forty individuals including fifteen 
individual skulls and skull fragments. These 
remains were found in cave deposits near 
Peking, China, along with remains of animals 
that are believed to have been of middle 
Pleistocene age, perhaps 150,000 or 300,000 
years ago, according to geological estimates. 

An important physical characteristic of 
Sinanthropus pekinensis was the small brain 
estimated to have been from about 915 to 
1,225 cubic centimeters in volume. 

Evidence from the cave deposits suggests 
that Sinanthropus used fire, made squarish 



chopping tools and a variety of scrapers of 
flaked stone, and hunted such animals as 
deer, sheep, buffalo, bison, rhinoceros, 
horse, camel, elephant, and even the 
ostrich. 

Neanderthal man (Homo neanderthalensis) 
is represented by remains ranging from 
nearly complete skeletons through skulls to 
jaw fragments and teeth. These skeletal 
remains have been found in about 20 burial 
sites in Europe or near Europe. 

Primarily upon the basis of associated 
animal remains, the European Neanderthal 
people are believed to have lived during 
and after the last major glacial advance 
in the late Pleistocene age, perhaps 30,000 
or 50,000 years ago, according to geological 
estimates. 

An important physical charactistic of 
European Neanderthals was the large brain, 
about 1,200 to 1,600 cubic centimeters in 
volume. Neanderthal man in Europe is 
associated with the assemblage of stone 
tools and weapons that have been generally 
called "Mousterian." He lived in caves, 
used fire, buried his dead, and hunted big 
game animals now extinct. 

LARGE BRAIN 

Cro-Magnon man (Homo sapiens) is well 
represented by a number of skeletal remains 
found in cave dwellings and burial sites in 
western Europe. The Cro-Magnon remains 
have been found in geological associations 
10,000 to 20,000 years old, according to 
recent geological estimates. An important 
physical characteristic of Cro-Magnon man 
was the large brain, estimated to have 
averaged 1,660 cubic centimeters in volume. 

The remains of Cro-Magnon or of similar 
people have been found with stone tools 
and weapons typical of the Aurignacian, 
Solutrean, and Magdalenian industries and 
periods of the upper Paleolithic age in 
Europe. 

MANY DOUBTS REMAIN 

"In the study of human evolution," says 
Professor Washburn in the article already 
cited, "there will always be room for many 
differences of opinion and for doubt." At 
present there are so many differences of 
opinion and so many doubts that it seems 
almost impossible to make an unchallenged 
statement about the evolution of man. 
Even more difficult is human evolution, the 
development of man after he achieved 
human form. 

The fossil record, as illustrated by the 
Museum's selection of human types for its 
fossil hall of fame exhibit, clearly demon- 
strates an increase in brain size over a rela- 
tively short span of time, less than 300,000 
years, possibly less than 150,000 years. 
And it is most probable that human evolu- 
tion is primarily if not solely the evolution 
of the brain which can be perceived in 
quantitative if not qualitative terms. 



SATURDAY PROGRAMS 

FOR CHILDREN 

Children are invited to three free programs 
of motion pictures and a puppet show at the 
Museum on the mornings of the four 
Saturdays in April. Explorers who made 
the films to be shown will be present to tell 
their stories on two of the programs. These 
shows are presented by the James Nelson 
and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation, and 
all will begin at 10:30 a.m., in the James 
Simpson Theatre of the Museum. Children 
may attend in groups from schools, clubs, 
and other centers, or they may come in- 
dividually, with or without parents or other 
adults. No tickets are needed. Following 
are the titles and dates: 

April 7 — In the Circus Arena 

A close-up view of the circus with all its 
exciting acts and animals 

April 14 — The Little House by the Creek 

Living close to Mother Nature's children 
Story told by Earl L. Hilfiker 

April 21 — Wild Animals in India 

Story told by John Moyer 

April 28 — The Amazing Voyage of Nicky 
Noodle 

Puppet stage -production by Coleman Pup- 
pets, Maywood, Illinois 



STAFF NOTES 



George I. Ouimby, Curator of North 
American Archaeology and Ethnology, 
spent a week in March at the Museum of 
Anthropology of the University of Michigan 
in Ann Arbor, in consultations with anthro- 
pologists and geologists on problems of 
culture and ecology of the Great Lakes Area 
in early Pleistocene and post-Pleistocene 
times .... Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, Curator 
Emeritus of Zoology, attended the recent 
meeting of the Committee on Systematic 
Biology of the National Science Foundation 
in Washington, D.C. He and Dr. Rainer 
Zangerl, Curator of Fossil Amphibians and 
Reptiles, were recent lecturers at the Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 
University . . . . D. Dwight Davis, Curator 
of Vertebrate Anatomy, gave a graduate 
seminar lecture on "The Historical Back- 
ground of the Human Tarsus" at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois College of Medicine .... 
Dr. Theodor Just, Chief Curator of 
Botany, spoke before the taxonomy and 
morphology seminar of Iowa State College 
at Ames on "Biology and Society." He 
also gave a public lecture on "Natural 
History, Past and Future" .... Dr. Julian 
A. Steyermark, Curator of the Phanero- 
gamic Herbarium, spoke before a seminar 
at Kansas State Teachers College, Pittsburg, 
on taxonomy and plant exploration. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



April, 1956 



FIGS OF SUBTROPICS 
GROW IN CHICAGO 

By JOHN W. THTERET 

CURATOR OF ECONOMIC BOTANY 

FEW CHICAGOANS realize that figs- 
one of the best-knovn of the subtropical 
fruits — can be grown in the Windy City, 
hardly famed for its clement weather. They 
not only can be but indeed they are grown 
by those who feel that a bland reward is 
sufficient payment for the performance of a 
not-too-easy task. These people and their 
friends enjoy the often prolific crop. 

Despite this, it is unlikely that Chicago 
will ever become a fig-growing center. The 




GROWS FIGS IN CHICAGO 
Charles Cardella lowering one of his subtropical 
fruit trees into a trench in his garden at 6319 West 
Patterson Avenue. Covered with old rugs and soil, 
the tree is protected from winter cold. In spring it 
is dug up and replanted. 

difficulty lies in the fact that the fig tree 
must be given adequate protection from cold 
during the winter. There are two general 
ways in which this may be accomplished: the 
first is to grow the tree in a large pot that can 
be moved indoors into a cool place with the 




PAYS OFF IN SUMMER 
A fruiting branch of one of the dark-skinned varie- 
ties of the common type of fig grown in Chicago by 
Mr. Cardella. 

beginning of cold weather; the second in- 
volves growing the tree in a sheltered posi- 
tion and giving it various sorts of winter 
protection. 

The second is the more challenging one 



and the one used by a local fig-grower whose 
garden I visited. He had tried for many 
years to grow figs but always lost them by 
freezing during the winter. Finally the idea 
— not a new one — occurred to him to try 
burying the entire tree in November, after 
its leaves had been shed, and digging it up 
again the following spring! This task is 
accomplished by undercutting and freeing 
the roots on one side, digging a trench a foot 
or two deep running out from the base of the 
trunk, and gently bending the tree over into 
the trench. The branches are wrapped with 
cloth, covered with old rugs and the like, and 
then heaped over with soil. One of the trees 
protected by this method developed a trunk 
over five inches in diameter and finally 
became too big to handle during the burying 
period. 

The amount of cold that a dormant fig 
tree will withstand is determined by a num- 
ber of factors, including variety, degree of 
dormancy, and condition of the plant. For 
example, certain fig trees in Texas were 
uninjured by a low of 11°F. Other varieties, 
in California, showed fruit-bud injury after 
a drop to 15°-18°F. At 10°-12°F some 
healthy mature plants were but slightly 
injured, whereas injury was severe to old 
and young bearing trees. In contrast, some 
varieties can withstand temperatures as low 
as 3°F without damage. 

The growing of figs in the northern states 
has been known for many years. In New 
York, Philadelphia, and other cities many 
fig trees are said to grow out-of-doors, 
receiving winter protection of some sort. 
This practice is just another illustration of 
man's apparently insatiable desire to grow 
plants in areas not ideally suited to their 
growth. Other examples are to be seen in 
greenhouses and in the vast smudge-pot and 
citrus industry of Florida. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of principal gifts re- 
ceived during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology: 

From: Cornelia Conger, Chicago — 3 arti- 
facts from Northern Plains Indians, Idaho 

Department of Botany: 

From: American Spice Trade Association, 
New York — 16 photographic prints of spice 
plants; W. W. Hodge, Kennett Square, Pa. 
— photograph (Myristica fragrans fruits) 

Department of Geology: 

From: Rosiclare Lead & Fluorspar Mining 
Co., Rosiclare, 111. — a specimen of fluorite; 
Miss Lillian Ross, Chicago — holotype of 
insect, Illinois 

Department of Zoology: 

From: Ismael Ceballos Bendezu, Cuzco, 
Peru — 15 small rodents; H. R. Bullis, Pasca- 
goula, Miss. — marine shell, Gulf of Mexico; 
Harry Hoogstraal, Cairo, Egypt — 86 frogs, 
191 lizards, 9 snakes; William E. Old, Jr., 
Norfolk, Va. — collection of land snails; 
Fraser Walsh, Formosa — birdskin 



FIFTH 'MUSEUM JOURNEY' 
STUDIES BIBLE PLANTS 

Plants of the Bible is the subject of the 
fifth Museum Travelers' Journey for boys 
and girls now in progress at the Museum. 
Presented by the Raymond Foundation, the 
journey is available through April to 
youngsters who wish to become Museum 
Travelers — which means that they must 
successfully complete four "journeys" after 
which they will receive special awards from 
Dr. Clifford C. Gregg, Director. 

During their "travels" the youngsters, 
armed with instructions and questions con- 
cerning the exhibits, are transported to the 
shores of the Sea of Galilee, the mountains 
of Lebanon, the Nile River, and to Jerusa- 
lem. In the botany halls they learn of some 
of the food plants and other plants that 
were of great importance to the people of 
the Holy Land in biblical times. 

A colorful Bible plant exhibit in Stanley 
Field hall introduces the journey to its 
young travelers and prepares them for their 
further travels in the museum. A journey 
to toys of ancient and modern times was 
offered in December and January. 



NEW MEMBERS 

(February 14 to March 14) 

Associate Members 

Miss Grace Bittrich, Robert C. Cross, Paul 
C. Fulton, David Bruce Glade, Bernhart 
Haugen, Henry Kenny, F. Chaloner McNair 

Sustaining Member 

R. S. Solinsky 

Annual Members 

• Roy T.» Anderson, Dr. Hugo C. Baum, 
Marshall L. Billings, Frank L. Bixby, E. 
Henry Blume, Hymen H« Bregar, Mrs. 
Robert F. Carr, Hayden F. Conway, George 
J. Cooper, James H. Cunningham, Herbert 
Daniels, Miss Phyllis Dockendorf, Mrs. 
Vivian Dockendorf, Robert J. Doucette, 
J. O. Epeneter, Francis A. Even, Miss 
Judith Fagan, Mitchel E. Farris, Edward J. 
Fey, Philip A. Fleischman, Dr. Aristotle T. 
Flessor, G. K. Franklin, Alfred E. Gallo, 
Arthur John Geng, Mrs. William Glassen- 
berg, A. L. Goddard, Francis H. Gurney, 
Carl Gustafson, Edward W. Hill, A. C. 
Hoffman, L. C. Holloman, Jr., Richard H. 
Jay, Harry F. Keator, Jr., Russell W. 
Keegan, John Laidlaw, Willard C. Lighter, 
Donald E. Longwill, M. G. Luken, Jr., 
Richard W. Massey, W. R. Maxwell, Dr. 
William L. Maxwell, David N. McCarl, 
Samuel E. McTier, Dr. W. Harrison Mehn, 
R. H. Olson, Glenn R. Ostrander, Mrs. 
Fentress Ott, W. H. Pfarrer, Mrs. Mary S. 
Pfiffner, Robert E. Pflaumer, Mrs. R. 
Joseph Rich, A. W. Richart, Herbert J. 
Richmond, William E. Roberts, John M. 
Rolfe, Joseph K. Salomon, B. J. Schlicht, 
John G. Sevcik, William B. Smeeth, Herbert 
S. Sorock, Adolph F. Spiehler, Cheston F. 
Stafford, Richard W. Stafford, Mrs. F. H. 
Steinmann, Donald R. Stewart, John Svatik, 
Charles B. Tansley, Charles D. Turgrimson, 
Master David Vasalle, Pasquale Venetucci, 
Percy H. Waller, William F. Wrightson 

PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 




*J 






RULLETIN 

U Vol.27,No.5-May- 1956 

Chicago Natural 
H is tory Mus e um 



■*.„ 







Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



May, 1 956 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery Hughston M. McBain 

Wm. McCormick Blair William H. Mitchell 

Walther Buchen John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Walter J. Cummings Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

Samuel Insull, Jr. John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Hughston M. McBain Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Jane Rockwell 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



EMILY MARSH WILCOXSON 

(1864-1956) 

The Museum's former Librarian, Mrs. 
Emily M. Wilcoxson, died on April 11. 
During her many years of service, Mrs. 
Wilcoxson was known and loved by the 
entire staff of the institution, and the news 
of her passing was 
received by her 
many friends with 
heartfelt sorrow. 

Mrs. Wilcoxson 
faithfully served 
the Museum for 
almost forty-five 
years — forty-one 
years as Assistant 
Librarian and Li- 
brarian until her 
official retirement 
in 1946, and four 
additional years as 

Librarian Emerita until her "second retire- 
ment" in 1950. She was 91 years of age 
at the time of her death. 

Mrs. Wilcoxson was tern December 24, 
1864, at Hadley, Massachusetts. 

At a memorial service held April 22, 
John R. Millar, Deputy Director of the 
Museum, paid the following tribute to 
Mrs. Wilcoxson: 

"We are here to honor the memory of 




Mrs. Emily M. Wilcoxson 



a gentlewoman whose strength and sweet- 
ness of character will long be remembered 
by those who were privileged to know her. 
I am here, not only on my own behalf as one 
of those who knew her in her work as Li- 
brarian of Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum, but also as a representative of Dr. 
Clifford C. Gregg, Director of the Museum, 
and of all our fellow employees. 

"In speaking of the Museum we tend to 
personify it as some kind of super-being 
with body, soul, and immortality. But as 
we all know, the soul and spirit of any 
organization is contributed by its employees 
and those who supervise its various func- 
tions. 

"It is in this light that we recognize the 
great contribution that Mrs. Wilcoxson 
made to the life and personality of the 
Museum, first as Assistant Librarian for 
twenty-five years beginning in 1905, and 
then as Librarian for sixteen years until 
1946. As Librarian Emerita she continued 
in daily attendance on her work until it 
became obvious to all that her physical 
strength could not match the strength of 
her will to continue. . . . 

"We cannot mourn the passing of anyone 
who has lived more than a score of years 
beyond the usually allotted three score and 
ten. But we do regret that our own little 
world has lost a large contributor to its 
dignity and worth. Hardworking and de- 
voted to her task, with a day not measured 
by the clock, Mrs. Wilcoxson always was 
willing to help those who needed her services. 
No illness or personal problem ever altered 
her smiling graciousness. . . . 

"For her contribution to the growth of 
Chicago Natural History Museum into 
a great institution of its kind, and for the 
brightness and cheer that she brought into 
the lives of many, we who knew her are 
deeply grateful, and wish to express our 
sympathy to her family." 



WHERE YOUTHFUL FANCY 
TURNS IN SPRING 

We may be accused of a slight exagger- 
ation, but outwardly, spring at Chicago 
Natural History Museum seems to belong 
exclusively to children. 

In past seasons, the Museum has prepared 
for an onrush of school children beginning 
in April. But last year the hordes of 
youngsters began pouring in in March and 
this year they began in February. Ample 
proof for these statements lies in the fact 
that the total attendance of children par- 
ticipating in school tours and special pro- 
grams at the Museum during recent months 
has broken all records. In February last 
year the figure was 2,569, while in February 
of this year it was 3,447. In March it was 
the same story: 4,899 in 1955, and 4,967 in 
1956. Although April figures are not avail- 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



Meet the 17- Year or Periodical 
Cicada — definitely the Insect of 
the Month. He is due to appear 
in the Chicago area, and nearby 
states, in May, 1956 for the first 
time since 1939. Like the "man 
who came to dinner" he will stay 
for several weeks, but finally will 
vanish, not to reappear in these 
parts until 1973. The cover pic- 
ture is a photograph of part of 
a small habitat group included in 
a comprehensive special exhibit 
which may be seen in Stanley 
Field Hall from May 1 through 
the summer. It is enlarged to 
more than twice the insect's ac- 
tual size. The special exhibit 
includes graphic material on the 
Periodical Cicada's distribution, 
life cycle, song, earliest historical 
records, and damage caused by it. 
On page 3 of this Bulletin is an 
article by Henry S. Dybas, Associ- 
ate Curator of Insects, outlining 
the principal facts about the 
cicadas which are expected soon 
to be swarming here. 



able at this writing, there is good indication 
that April will exceed last year's figure, and 
May, always the peak month of the year for 
children's activities, promises to do the 
same. 

Miss Miriam Wood, Chief of the Ray- 
mond Foundation whose function it is to 
plan and set up children's activities such as 
tours, exhibits, movies, and special pro- 
grams, attributes the record attendance and 
participation in children's activities in great 
part to an increasing awareness by schools 
and communities of the advantages of 
availing themselves of the resources of 
large cities. And distance is no barrier. 
School buses are transporting children to 
the Museum with ever-increasing regularity 
from our neighboring states of Michigan, 
Indiana, Wisconsin, and Iowa. Trains and 
buses also bring children from more far- 
flung points, including our neighboring 
country, Canada. 

Another significant trend noted by Miss 
Wood is the increasing tendency to cor- 
relate classroom curricula with visits to the 
Museum. Since April 2, thousands of fifth, 
sixth, and seventh graders have attended 
special programs geared to their classroom 
studies on prehistoric man, prehistoric ani- 
mals, ancient Egypt, and the natural wonders 
of North America. In May and June school 
groups will be participating in programs on 
the coming of spring to the Chicago region, 
birds of the Chicago area, and a rock and 
mineral workshop. , * 



May, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 3 



MILLIONS OF SEVENTEEN- YEAR CICADAS DUE HERE IN MAY 



By HENRY S. DYBAS 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF INSECTS 

THIS IS THE YEAR of the 17-year 
cicada. 
The Chicago area is in the heart of the 
region where these insects, commonly but 
improperly called "17-year locusts," may be 
expected to swarm most densely during the 
last weeks of May and in early June. 



long one for any animal. In the southern 
United States there is a 13-year race of the 
Periodical Cicada that otherwise has the 
same appearance and habits as the 17-year 
race. Because of this 13-year race, the 
name 17- Year Cicada is not as appropriate 
as the name Periodical Cicada which has 
been used by most writers for about a cen- 
tury. Even less appropriate is the name 




Phoco courtesy of Lee Jenkins 



'ATTACK' FROM UNDERGROUND 

Periodical cicadas emerging from the soil in large numbers. 



The sudden and noisy appearance peri- 
odically of enormous populations of cicadas, 
after years of apparent absence, has aroused 
wonder and occasionally alarm in this 
country since early colonial times. Seven- 
teen years ago, "on schedule," these cicadas 
last appeared in northern Illinois and in 
adjacent regions. They emerged by the 
millions in late May and June of 1939 in 
Cook County Forest Preserves and in other 
woodlands around Chicago and filled the 
air with their shrill song. A few weeks later 
they were gone. 

The offspring of these 1939 cicadas have 
been developing slowly underground during 
the intervening years and are expected to 
emerge this year .... in fact, in a very few 
weeks. This year's high school graduates 
were only a year old when these insects last 
appeared in our region. They and many 
other persons who have never seen the 
Periodical Cicada will have their first chance 
now to observe this remarkable natural 
phenomenon. 

The seventeen-year cycle of the Periodical 
Cicada has been known for a long time. In 
1758 Linnaeus named the insect Cicada 
septendecim in reference to the length of its 
cycle. This cycle is still the longest known 
for any insect and, indeed, is a remarkably 



17- Year Locust, because the term locust is 
properly applied only to grasshoppers. The 
confusion between cicadas and locusts ap- 
pears to have occurred in early times. 
Perhaps the sudden appearence of great 
numbers of Periodical Cicadas suggested to 
our ancestors the swarms of Migratory 
Locusts of the Old World which are referred 
to in the Bible. The cicada itself belongs to 
the order Homoptera, a group that includes 
a number of familiar, though much smaller, 
insects such as plant lice and scale insects. 

LIFE CYCLE 

The life cycle of the Periodical Cicada is 
as follows: The eggs are laid in slits cut into 
twigs. They hatch in a few weeks and the 
young nymphs drop to the ground, where 
they burrow down into the soil and each 
nymph forms a little cell associated with 
a rootlet upon whose juices it feeds. Here 
each nymph remains in complete darkness 
in its solitary cell and grows slowly through 
the seasons — for seventeen years in the 
northern race and thirteen years in the 
southern. At the end of this period, in 
the early spring, the cicada returns to the 
surface of the ground, sometimes construct- 
ing a little turret. It may not emerge for 
several weeks. Then suddenly on a warm 



evening, usually in late May in our area, 
the mass exodus begins. As if on signal, 
great numbers of cicada nymphs crawl out 
of the ground and climb up on plants and 
trees. Each nymph rests for a while; then 
the skin splits down the back and the soft 
creamy-white adult emerges. The small 
wing pads expand, the insect hardens and 
darkens and in a few hours it is ready to 
begin the final phase of its life. In the next 
few weeks, the chorus of the males is heard 
while courtship, mating, and egg-laying take 
place. Gradually after a few weeks or so 
the cicadas disappear, prey to enemies or to 
old age and the long cycle is complete. 

BROODS NOT SIMULTANEOUS 

The 17-year race of the Periodical Cicada 
does not emerge simultaneously over its 
entire range in North America. Different 
broods appear in different years in various 
parts of the range, although each brood 
requires seventeen years to complete its 
development. Each of the broods has been 
designated by a number for purposes of 
record and reference. The brood that is 
expected to emerge this year in northern 
Illinois and adjacent areas, is Brood XIII. 
Records of its emergence, at seventeen-year 
intervals, go back to the middle of the 19th 
century. Other broods in eastern North 




WHERE 1956 SWARMS ARE EXPECTED 

The approximate range of Brood XIII of the 

Periodical Cicada, due to emerge this month. 



America have been traced back even further. 
Where two or more of these broods overlap, 
the cicadas appear at less than seventeen- 
year intervals. The 13-year race, likewise, 
has a number of broods that emerge at 
different times over its range. To further 
complicate the situation, there is a broad 
zone in which broods of the northern 17-year 
race and broods of the southern 13-year 
race overlap and produce a complicated, 
seemingly irregular, pattern of emergence. 
Unraveling these complexities has not been 



Page i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



May, 1956 



easy for entomologists and many problems 
remain unsolved. 

How the emergence years of the different 
broods got staggered with relation to each 
other is not known. It is known, however, 
that a few individuals may appear a year 
before or a year after the emergence of the 




Photo courtesy of Lee Jenkins 

FINAL METAMORPHOSIS 
The cicada emerging from its skin. 

main brood because their development has 
been accelerated or delayed. It has been 
suggested that the different broods could 
have originated from small groups of such 
individuals that had gotten out of schedule 
with their own brood. 

SONG BY VAST CHORUSES 

One of the striking impressions of a mass 
cicada emergence is the sound produced by 
great numbers of cicadas. The buzzing of 
countless males results in a characteristic 
sound that can scarcely be described. They 
sing only during the day and the sound is 
loudest in hot, dry, and clear weather. The 
sound organs are on the first segment of the 
abdomen and consist of a pair of ribbed, 
crisp, convex membranes that are rapidly 
snapped in and out by powerful muscles to 
produce the sound. It has been suggested 
that this way of making sound is like 
pressing the bottom of a tin pan up and 
down. Associated with the sound organs 
are a large sound chamber and covering 
plate on each side. The cicada can modify 
the sound it produces by raising and lower- 
ing its abdomen to change the relative 
position of the covering plate over the sound 
chamber. 

NUMBERS AND DAMAGE 

Under certain circumstances the numbers 
of emerging cicadas can be enormous. 
Several thousand emergence holes have been 
counted under a single tree. But there 



seems to be no evidence that either the 
nymphs or the adults cause any appreciable 
damage to the trees by sucking the sap, even 
when they are present in such great numbers. 
The damage that does occur is caused by the 
egg-laying activities of the female. The 
female has an ovipositer with which she cuts 
longitudinal slits in the twigs of trees in 
which to lay her eggs. The leaves on the 
twigs often die as a result of these slits and 
the twigs may be weakened so that they 
break in the wind. A large brood can pro- 
duce a conspicuous discoloration in a wood- 
land by damaging leaves and twigs, but the 
damage is usually only temporary. Oc- 
casionally, fruit trees and nursery stock may 
be more severely damaged, especially when 
they are surrounded by or are adjacent to 
woodlands. Individual shrubs and small 
trees in such situations may be protected 
with cheese-cloth or other netting. Periodi- 
cal Cicadas do not stray far from where they 



Some Obfervations of fwnns of flrange. InfeStf, 
and the Mifcbiefs done by them. 

A great Obfervcr, whd hath lived long in N« E»j(W, 
did upon occaf?on,relate to a Friend of his in Louden, where 
he lately was, That fomefew Years fince there was fucha 
fwarmofa certain fort of Infects in that Effglif* Colony, 
that for the fpacc of zoo Miles they poyfon"d and deftroyed 
all the Trees of that Country , there beirig found innume- 
rable little holes in the ground, out of which thofe Infects 
broke forth in the form of Ahggots, which turned into Fljti 
that had a kind of taile or ftiog, which they (truck into the 
Tree, and thereby envenomed and killed ir. 

REPORTED IN 17th CENTURY 
The earliest account of the Periodical Cicada. It 
was published in 1666 in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society of London. 



emerged and, ordinarily, special protective 
measures are not necessary unless there are 
many cicadas emerging in the immediate 
surroundings. 

OTHER CICADAS 

Many other kinds of cicadas are known, 
although no other American species is as 
noteworthy as the Periodical Cicada either 
in the length of its life cycle or in the huge 
numbers in which it emerges. One of the 
best known is the Dog-day Harvest-fly, 
whose shrill buzz-saw sound in the treetops 
is one of the most characteristic sounds of 
our hot summer days. 

A leaflet on the Periodical Cicada is 
available at the Book Shop of the Museum. 
The leaflet was written following the emer- 
gence, in 1922, of the grandparents of the 
cicadas that are due this year. Will the 
emergence this year equal or surpass that 
of 1939? Only time will tell how many 
cicadas have managed to survive the 
vicissitudes of the last seventeen years. 



MINERALOGIST APPOINTED 
TO MUSEUM STAFF 

Norman Henry Suhr has been appointed 
to the staff of the Department of Geology 
as Associate Curator of Mineralogy and 
Petrology. He will begin his duties in May. 

A native Chicagoan, Mr. Suhr earned both 
a B.A. and an M.S. (Geology) degree at the 
University of Chicago. He is at present 
completing requirements for a Ph.D. degree. 

Mr. Suhr has been an industrial geologist, 
having been employed in mapping oil fields 
for The Texas Company, underground map- 
ping for Amco Exploration of Toronto, 
Canada, and laboratory work in separation, 
analysis, and evaluation of heavy minerals 
for the Crane Company. For three years 
he was a research and teaching assistant 
at the University of Chicago and the 
University of Illinois. 



STAFF NOTES 



Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, Curator Emeritus 
of Zoology, flew to Europe late in March for 
a research project in connection with a large 
collection of frogs from the Belgian Congo 
deposited in the Museum by the Institut des 
Pares Nationaux du Congo Beige. Dr. 
Schmidt will make studies at museums in 
Brussels, Paris, and London. He will return 
in May .... George I. Quimby, Curator 
of North American Archaeology and Eth- 
nology, spent a week last month on a study 
trip to the University of Wisconsin and the 
Wisconsin State Historical Society Museum 
in Madison, and the Milwaukee Public 
Museum, in pursuance of his research pro- 
ject on problems of the Great Lakes area. 
He consulted with archaeologists, botanists, 
and geologists .... Miss Elaine Bluhm, 
Assistant in Archaeology, and Alden Liss, 
assistant in the Museum's Pacific Research 
Laboratory, attended the recent meetings of 
the Illinois Archaeological Survey at Spring- 
field .... Melvin A. Traylor, Assistant Cu- 
rator of Birds, recently made a field trip to 
the Florida Keys for a preliminary survey 
of the biology of the great white heron .... 
Loren P. Woods, Curator of Fishes, lec- 
tured on "The Flora and Fauna of the 
Galapagos" before the Barrington Natural 
History Club . . . . D. Dwight Davis, Cu- 
rator of Vertebrate Anatomy, spoke on 
"Mammalian Taxonomy" in a symposium 
on Australopithecines at the Annual Meeting 
of the American Association of Physical 
Anthropologists .... Dr. R. M. Strong, 
Research Associate in Anatomy, attended 
the annual meetings of the Cajal Club and 
of the American Association of Anatomists 
in Milwaukee. 



The principal known facts about the 
fascinating migrations of birds are presented 
in an exhibit in Boardman Conover Hall. 



The world's largest meteorite collection is 
exhibited in Hall 35. 



May, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



'IT'S DONE WITH MIRRORS' 
IN NEW BIRD EXHIBIT 

By EMMET R. BLAKE 

CURATOR OP BIRDS 

VISITORS to the hall of bird habitat 
groups (Hall 20) will almost certainly 
notice, at the east end of the penguin exhibit, 
a new installation in which the conspicuously 
distinctive summer and winter plumages of 
a willow ptarmigan are shown. Each of 
these seasonal plumages, brown in summer, 
white in winter, is displayed against 
a diorama of identical views in the Alaska 
mountains, but at different seasons. 

Those who pause in front of the exhibit 
even briefly to admire the beauty of the 
single bird on display at any given moment 
are likely to question their vision, if not 
their sanity. For at intervals of a few 
seconds the ptarmigan, whether in the 
mottled brown plumage of summer or 
clothed in winter's white, appears instan- 
taneously to assume the alternate livery, and 
the habitat changes its seasonal character. 




PTARMIGAN-SUMMER PHASE 




PTARMIGAN-WINTER PHASE 
Pictures cannot quite tell the story the way the 
actual exhibit does. At the Museum, by clever use 
of a mirror and alternating lights, first one and then 
the other of the bird's seasonal plumages is dis- 
played at intervals of a few seconds. 

It is an optical illusion, accomplished with 
the aid of a slanting two-way mirror, con- 
cealed lights, and an automatic timing 
device. Under certain lighting conditions 
the mirror becomes transparent, permitting 
one to see the immaculate white ptarmigan 
in its wintry habitat. Soon the lights 
change, the winter bird and its diorama 
disappear and are replaced by the mirrored 
image only of a summer bird and diorama 
attached to the ceiling of the case. 

The Museum's constant search for new 
and better techniques of display are no- 
where better exemplified than in this exhibit 



which utilizes a recent technological develop- 
ment to demonstrate a striking biological 
phenomenon. Arctic birds react to the 
approach of severe winter conditions in 
various ways. Most birds, including all of 
the insect-eaters, migrate southward in the 
fall and some travel thousands of miles to 
winter in South America. A few hardy 
species are able to survive the northern 
winters, but may undergo plumage changes 
that increase their chances of survival. 

Ptarmigans, the grouse of the Arctic, are 
typical of the latter group. They live in the 
tundra and have outposts both in the moor- 
lands of the British Isles and above timber- 
line in our western mountains where arctic 
conditions prevail. Three of the four quite 
similar species inhabit North America and 
molt from brown to white in winter. The 
fourth, the famed red grouse of the British 
Isles, is reddish brown throughout the year. 



Visiting Hours Extended 
for Summer Season 
j ^Effective May 1 and continuing through 
September 3 (Labor Day) visiting hours at 
the Museum are extended by one hour. 
The Museum will be open daily, including 
Sundays and holidays, from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. 
At the end of this period, hours will revert 
to 9 A.M.-5 P.M. 



NEW MEMBERS 

(March 15 to April 13) 

Life Member 

Richard A. Waller 

Associate Members 

Charles Grosberg, Gerald Hollins, George 
N. Leighton, J. A. Middleton, Arthur Ryan, 
Samuel J. Sackett, E. Todd Wheeler 

Sustaining Members 

Clayton G. Ball, A. B. Dick III, John H. 
Johnson 

Annual Members 

Howard Adler, Donald R. Bonniwell, E. 
J. Braun, L. B. Buchanan, A. C. Buehler, 
Jr., Ernest W. Christener, Bernard J. Cogan, 
Francis D. Edes, Henry Fishman, Frank M. 
Fucik, A. E. Hibbs, Frank Gall, Gunnar E. 
Gunderson, Mrs. Dustin Grannis, William 
P. Hypes, Raymond L. Icely, Frank H. 
Ingram, Charles N. Jensen, Max Koenigs- 
berg, Arthur M. Krensky, Raymond Kropp, 
Richard J. Ley, C. H. Lillienfield, Albert S. 
Long, Jr., William Ludvik, Nicholas P. 
Masse, Mrs. Douglas McDonald, Mrs. 
David H. Milne, Mark C. Morgan, Harold 
J. Nussbaum, J. W. O'Neill, William Oster- 
mann, Paul J. Panuce, Andrew L. Pontius, 
Ralph G. Raymond, G. L. Ridenour, Samuel 
Rome, Theodore Rossman, Byron C. Staf- 
feld, Mrs. John Stephens, J. H. Van Moss, 
Jr., S. L. Workman 



A selection of typical albino birds and 
mammals is on exhibition in an alcove 
north of the entrance to Boardman Conover 
Hall (Hall 21). 



YOUTH SCIENCE FAIR 
AT MUSEUM MAY 12 

HOW AMERICA'S YOUTH is respond- 
ing to the nation's acute need for 
scientists, engineers, and technicians, will 
be demonstrated at Chicago Natural History 
Museum on Saturday, May 12, when Stan- 
ley Field Hall, from 9 a.m to 5 p.m. will 
become the scene of the Chicago Area 
Science Fair. 

Exhibitors in the fair will be Chicago-area 
elementary school pupils from the sixth 
grade up, and high school students from 
freshmen to seniors. The fair is sponsored 
by the Chicago Teachers Science Associa- 
tion. All the exhibits will be the creations 
of the children and students themselves, 
prepared outside of school hours, and with- 
out help from parents, teachers, or other 
adults in any of the actual work of produc- 
tion. The scope of the exhibits includes 
biology, physics, chemistry, electricity, 
electronics, astronomy, geology, mathema- 
tics, and miscellaneous scientific subjects. 

Pupils of public, parochial, and private 
schools thoughout Chicago and its sur- 
rounding suburbs will participate. About 
125 exhibits are expected to qualify for 
"the big show" in the Museum — these will 
include only those that have won top honors 
in local preliminary science fairs to be held 
at each of the individual schools. The boys 
and girls who prepared each exhibit will be 
present at the Museum with their creations 
to demonstrate, and to answer questions. 

A committee of judges appointed by the 
Chicago Teachers Science Association will 
inspect each exhibit, and will also interview 
the boy and girl exhibitors to determine 
their knowledge and background in their 
subject. The results of these oral tests, as 
well as the skill and imagination revealed by 
the exhibits themselves, will be factors in 
selecting winners of the final awards. There 
will be awards for the best exhibits from 
each school grade level. 

In previous years, exhibits from north, 
south, and west sections of the Chicago area 
were displayed at different institutions, on 
different dates, and there were divisions 
between grade and high school projects. 
This year for the first time all exhibits from 
the entire area will be assembled at one 
place and at one time. Because of the Mu- 
seum's many activities for school children, 
high school and college students, and 
teachers, it was selected as a logical location 
for this year's comprehensive science fair. 

During the morning of the same day, 
May 12, beginning at 9:30, a Chicago Area 
Science Conference will be held at the 
Museum. This will begin with a general 
assemblage, after which the delegates will 
split into groups to discuss specific subjects. 
Theme of the conference is "Today's Youth 
— Tomorrow's Scientists and Engineers." 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



May, 1956 



NATURAL HISTORY EXHIBITS INSPIRE ART STUDENTS' CREATIVE EFFORTS 



By EDITHE JANE CASSADY 

HEAD OF THE JUNIOR SCHOOL, ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO 

THE EXHIBITION of drawings and 
paintings by students of the School of 
the Art Institute of Chicago is an annual 




AN ALLEGORY FROM NATURE 
"Arrangement of Animal Symbols" is the title of this mural by Paul Banks 
of Chicago, first-year adult school student at the Art Institute. Banks' thought- 
provoking work, executed in vivid pastel chalks, is on display along with other 
art students' productions inspired by natural history exhibits. 



May event at Chicago Natural History 
Museum. Installed in Stanley Field Hall, 
it combines the work 
of the young students 
of the Junior School 
and the regular stu- 
dents enrolled in the 
Basic Course of the 
Professional Day 
School. The exhibit 
may be seen from May 
1 to 31 inclusive. 

Sketching trips to 
the Museum are regu- 
larly scheduled by the 
school throughout the 
year. The students 
look forward with 
great pleasure to their 
'day' at the Museum 
— the fun of the trip 
over, the things they 
see en route, the in- 
teresting happenings 
of the ever-changing 
scene, then the Mu- 
seum with its exciting 
collections. They dis- 
cover and explore the 
wonders of the exhi- 
bits, then select their "favorites" and return 
again and again to "old favorites." 



The work in this exhibition shows what 
and how these young people draw and paint 
— not to represent the exhibits as accurately 
as possible but to express themselves, their 
own experiences. They communicate these 
experiences in their 
work, which forms 
a record of their trip 
to the Museum and 
what was most inspir- 
ing and interesting to 
them. The drawings 
and paintings show 
how differently they 
interpret the same 
subject, for it is the 
individual who uses his 
media and his form of 
expression according 
to his personal experi- 
ences. Since these 
experiences change 
with the growth of the 
individual, the age 
span of the participa- 
ting artists offers a 
unique opportunity to 
see the development 
of creative growth and 
to enjoy the work pro- 
duced. 

We in seeing, 
studying, and appre- 
ciating the drawings 
and paintings of these young people, see the 
world through the eyes of today's students, 



artists on the staff of Chicago Natural 
History Museum, selected the work in this 
year's exhibition. 




SOUTHWEST INDIAN MASKS 

Staff Artists Gustaf Dalstrom, left, and E. John Pfiffner with group-project 

mural by students of Junior School of the Art Institute. Dalstrom and Pfiffner 

selected students' work for special exhibit at this Museum during May. 



who are the artists of tomorrow. 

Gustaf Dalstrom and E. John Pfiffner, 



SCHOOLS AND SCOUTS 
AIDED BY MUSEUM 

Special programs, ranging in interest from 
prehistoric man to the coming of spring to 
Chicago, were presented to thousands of 
young Museum visitors by the Raymond 
Foundation last month as part of the Mu- 
seum's effort to work in conjunction with 
school and other organized groups during 
the busy spring season. 

On display in the south entrance to 
Stanley Field Hall is a special exhibit pre- 
pared by the sixth-grade pupils of Arm- 
strong School in Chicago based on a Museum 
program that the children attended several 
months ago. Exhibited are drawings, charts, 
written material, and a miniature diorama 
depicting the building of the pyramids. 
Special programs on ancient Egypt were 
given for Chicago-area school children be- 
ginning in April and extending through 
May 4. 

A bird program for Cub Scouts of the 
Chicago region was held at the Museum on 
April 26. The junior Scouts (from ages 
eight to eleven) saw free color motion pic- 
tures and were able to utilize the Museum's 
bird halls to continue their studies being 
made in conjunction with the Cub Scouts' 
observance of April as "Bird Month." 
Other Museum activities given last month 
for school children included programs on 
prehistoric man, prehistoric animals, and 
the natural wonders of North America. 
This month and in June the Raymond 
Foundation school-group schedule will in- 
clude programs on birds of the Chicago 
region for fifth and seventh graders; Trail- 
side Adventures (the coming of spring to 
Chicago area) for fifth, sixth, and seventh 
graders; and a rock and mineral workshop 
available to small groups of upper grade- 
school students. Because of the popularity 
of the special programs, reservations must 
be made more than one week in advance 
or before quotas are filled. 



Daily Guide Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered daily 
except Sundays under the title "Highlights 
of the Exhibits." These tours are designed 
to give a general idea of the entire Museum 
and its scope of activities. They begin at 
2 P.M. on Monday through Friday and at 
2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 

Special tours on subjects within the range 
of the Museum exhibits are available Mon- 
days through Fridays for parties of ten or 
more persons. Requests for such service 
must be made at least one week in advance. 



May, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



A DEEP-SEA "BUG" 

By FRITZ HAAS 

CURATOR OF LOWER INVERTEBRATES 

THE FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
at Pascagoula, Mississipi, recently sent 
to the Museum a shipment containing, 
among other things, a bottle of several rare 
and strange deep-sea creatures. They were 
dredged up from a depth of 500 fathoms 
(3,000 feet) in the ocean north of Cuba in 
the course of fishing studies. 

These new specimens are one of the most 
valuable and welcome of recent accessions 
to our collections. Not only was the species 
hitherto unrepresented in our collections, 
but it is rarely found in any museum. The 
individuals we received are about 3J-2 inches 
long but are only half-grown. Despite this 
relatively small size they are giants among 
their relatives, the best known of which is 
the sow-bug. 

Almost everyone knows the little bug 
commonly called a sow-bug: an animal % to 
Yi inch in length, with a body consisting of 
a series of rings and with one pair of feet on 
the underside of each ring. It is found com- 
monly in moist spots, under flat rocks, bark, 
boards, and even in cellars of houses. Kin 
of this terrestrial sow-bug are often found 
in ditches and creeks. However the vast 
majority of related forms live in the ocean. 

There is no word in the English language 
that characterizes the entire group of sow- 
bug relatives, so we have to use their scien- 
tific name, "isopods." They are not insects, 
as often believed, but are akin to the cray- 
fish of our waters. The claws of the first 
pair of feet on crayfish are enlarged to form 
the so-called pinchers, whereas in the isopods 
the feet are all alike, which is just what their 
name means. 

HOW THEY LIVE 

While the isopods of the land and of 
freshwater are mostly small animals hardly 
exceeding % of an inch in length, those of 
the ocean have developed into larger beings 
often measuring 1]4 of an inch and even 
more. The great majority live in shallow 
water where they hide under rocks or in 
crevices and where they lead a predatory 
life preying on smaller or weaker animals or 
feeding, scavenger-like, on decomposing 
animal corpses; they even may attack living 
fishes for which there seems to be a predi- 
lection which has led to a basic change of 
life in some of the marine isopods. 

Quite a number have acquired a para- 
sitic way of life by clinging, with the help 
of the sharp claws of the forefeet, to the 
skin or the gills or even to the roof of the 
mouth of living fishes. There they nourish 
themselves, in a yet unknown way, on 
the body juices of the carrier-fish, apparently 
however not killing it or even damaging it 
severely. The sojourn on the fish may be 
temporary and the parasite can leave at 
will, swimming around until it infests a new 



host, or it may attach itself permanently 
to one fish. In this case, the body of the 
parasitic isopod, once it has settled on or in 
a fish, may change its shape to such an 
extent that it hardly can be recognized as 
an isopod. It may throw off the tentacles 
and the legs, the rings of its body may 




DEEP-SEA ISOPOD 

Specimen of a rare marine relative of the common 
terrestrial sow-bug. 

become irregular and very thin, the eyes 
may be lost: in short, all that remains of the 
organs is the mouth with the adjoining 
intestine and the organs of reproduction. 
This, the highest degree of adaptation to 
parasitic life, is found almost exclusively on 
the isopods living as parasites in the gills 
or the mouth of fishes. 

A few marine isopods have taken to the 
habit of boring and hence are among the 
most active destroyers of harbor pilework. 

EYES CONTRADICT ENVIRONMENT 

In contrast to the shore line and the 
surface layer of the ocean which are so rich 
in isopods, the deeper waters almost entirely 
lack them. Up to the present, only one 
kind of isopod has come to our knowledge, 
and this is a giant, attaining lengths up to 
S}4 inches! It has been found thus far only 
in the deep, lightless layers of water of 
warm oceans, beneath the 350-fathom line, 
in an environment that would make the use 



TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS 

The following technical publications were 
issued recently by the Museum: 

Fieldiana: Anthropology, Vol. 43. Cultural 
Chronology and Change as Reflected in the 
Ceramics of the Viru Valley, Peru. By 
Donald Collier. December 16, 1955. 
226 pages, 72 illustrations. $6. 

Fieldiana: Geology, Vol. 10, No. 22. The 
Carboniferous Gastropod Genus Glabri- 
cingulum Thomas. By Robert E. Sloan. 
December 20, 1955. 7 pages. 5 illustra- 
tions. 35c. 

Fieldiana: Geology, Vol. 10, No. 23. The 
Paragould Meteorite. By Sharat Kumar 
Roy and Robert Kriss Wyant. December 
29, 1955. 22 pages, 19 illustrations. 75c. 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 34. Coral 
Snakes of the Genus Micrurus in Colombia. 
By Karl P. Schmidt. December 29, 1955. 
23 pages, 5 illustrations. 35c. 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 35. On 
Some Small Collections of Inland Shells 
from South America. By Fritz Haas, 
December 29, 1955. 27 pages, 15 illus- 
trations. $1. 

Fieldiana: Anthropology, Vol. 36, No. 7. 
Late Mogollon Pottery Types of the Reserve 
Area. By John B. Rinaldo and Elaine A. 
Bluhm. January 10, 1956. 39 pages, 
34 illustrations. $1.25 

Fieldiana: Geology, Vol. 12, Pennsylvanian 
Invertebrates of the Mazon Creek Area, 
Illinois. By Eugene S. Richardson, Jr. 
January 25, 1956. 76 pages, 41 illustra- 
tions. $2. 



of eyes unnecessary. Strangely enough this 
deepsea isopod, whose scientific name is 
Bathynomus giganteus, has very large eyes, 
larger even relatively than those of its 
shallow-water relatives. The possession of 
enlarged eyes in animals in general is 
related to the dim light of their environ- 
ments. Mammals and birds with enlarged 
eyes are nocturnal; insects or spiders with 
this characteristic live in the twilight near 
the entrance of caves. These enlarged or- 
gans of vision enable them to collect as 
many as possible of the feeble rays of light 
that penetrate to them. What does this 
mean as to the very big eyes of our deepsea 
isopod? It can only mean that it originated 
in the dimly lit waters above the abyssal 
zone and that it has immigrated into these 
lightless depths only comparatively recently, 
not long enough to get rid of the eyes that 
have become useless in the animal's present 
abodes. 

Nothing is known about the life habits of 
this deepsea giant which is shown, in 
natural size, in the accompanying illustra- 
tion. The shape of the claws, however, 
seems to indicate that the species leads 
a predatory life on the sea bottom without 
having become a parasite. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



May, 1956 



MILKWEED INSECT TRAP 

By JULIAN A. STEYERMARK 

CURATOR OF THE PHANEROGAMIC HERBARIUM 

THE COMMON MILKWEED (Ascle- 
pias syriaca) of the eastern half of the 
United States and Canada readily attracts 
numerous insects to its masses of brownish- 
lilac flowers. However, occasionally the 
innocent-looking flowers of this plant act as 
traps for visiting insects. Last summer 
while returning from a weekend trip to 
northern Wisconsin, I stopped along the 
highway for a brief rest. Meanwhile my 




MODEL OF MILKWEED STRUCTURE 
The milkweed flower (center) is peculiarly special' 
ized for insect pollination, as shown in cutaway 
model exhibited in Hall 29. The cutaway section 
shows the translator, with pollen sacks in position. 
At left is a single stamen with hood and a pair of 
pollen masses. At right is a translator with pollen 
masses, borne on the leg of a bee serving as the 
insect pollinating agent. 



wife looked around in a nearby field and 
noticed several otherwise normal milkweed 
flower-clusters from which dead insects were 
hanging. Never having seen this phenom- 
enon before, I brought the flower-clusters 
back to the Museum and had them photo- 
graphed. The following week I stopped in 
many fields and examined hundreds of 
milkweed, but did not find any with dead 
insects caught in the flowers. In one in- 
stance a honeybee had caught one of its legs 
in a flower and could not extricate itself 
immediately. Finally, after a few minutes 
of desperate struggle, it managed to free 
itself and fly away safely. 

Like all other members of the milkweed 
family, the common milkweed possesses 
highly specialized reproductive organs. The 



pistil (or female) portion of the flower is 
located in the center of the flower. Sur- 
rounding its upper pentagonal portion 
(stigmatic disk) and connected with it are 
the five highly modified stamens. Opposite 
the stamens are hollow fleshy organs that 
secrete large amounts of nectar that attract 
insects. The two pouches of the anthers 
contain pollen masses. Each pollen mass 
on one side of a given anther is connected 
with a pollen mass of adjacent anther. 
These two pollen masses (pollinia) are 
joined to a central knob by slender arms, 
known as translators or caudicles, the whole 
structure appearing like an inverted "V." 
These pairs of pollen masses hang suspended 
from five cleft glands that appear in the 
angles of the stigmatic portion. 

As insects approach milkweed flowers, 
they attempt to get the nectar that is lodged 
in the hollow organs connected with the 
anthers. As their claws enter the slit or 
cleft leading to the nectar, they pick up the 
two pollen masses and, on withdrawal, lift 
them out of the pouches of the anther. 

The list of insects known to visit the 
common milkweed includes several kinds of 
flies, bees, wasps, and ants. In most cases 




ACCIDENT CASUALTIES 

Dead flies suspended from cluster of milkweed 

flowers in which they were caught. Normally this 

plant is not one of those known as insect traps. 

the insects visiting the flowers of the com- 
mon milkweed procure their nectar and fly 
away. In rare instances such as I had 
occasion to observe, they are trapped for 
no apparent reason and eventually die. 



Football in Pacific Islands 

Football is a popular sport in the Society 
and Gilbert Islands although the rules 
aren't as complicated as those of our own 
American game. A cube of matting stuffed 
with leaves serves as a ball, and the object is 
simply to get the ball over the enemy's goal 
line. Whole districts sometimes engage in 
this popular pastime. Visit Hall F (Peoples 
of Polynesia and Micronesia). 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of principal gifts re- 
ceived during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology: 

From: L. E. Frederick, Tacoma, Wash. 
— a wood block, Lhasa, Tibet; Mrs. Corinne 
Hodel, Chicago — a lady's robe, China; Oden 
Meeker, New York — a bronze drum, Indo- 
china; Mr. and Mrs. William Nuerenberg, 
Santa Monica, Calif. — a set of 8 small vases, 
China; E. D. Hester, Jeff ersonville, Ind. — 134 
pieces from Hester collection of Philippine 
ceramic recoveries 

Department of Botany: 

From: Dr. W. M. Banfield, Amherst, 
Mass. — 5 photographs of Ceratocyslis ulmi; 
Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, 
Hawaii — a photograph of Broussonetia papy- 
rifera; Grenada Co-operative Nutmeg As- 
sociation, British West Indies — fruits and 
foliage of Myristica fragrans; Iowa State 
College, Ames, Iowa — 2 seed samples of 
hybrid Zea mays; Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den, St. Louis — a Veronica latifolia; Pioneer 
Hi-Bred Corn Co., Des Moines — 19 samples 
of hybrid seed of Zea mays; Dr. John W. 
Thieret, Homewood, 111. — specimens of gum 
of Cycas circinalis; Vaughan's Seed Store, 
Chicago — 44 seed samples of Zea mays, 
Phaseolus and Vigna; Institut National 
pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo Beige, 
Yangambi, Belgian Congo — 56 legume seed 
samples; Mrs. Omie McCarthy and Mrs. 
Linda Kennedy, Nome, Alaska — 147 plants; 
State College of Agriculture, Ithaca, N.Y. — 
photograph (Ceratocystis ulmi coremia); 
Botanic Gardens of Indonesia, Java — 
6 photographs; Mrs. Julia Free, Sedonia, 
Ariz. — a sample of seeds and 2 samples of 
wood, Texas and Arizona; U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, Beltsville, Md. — 11 photo- 
graphs of plants 

Department of Zoology: 

From: Dr. Joseph Camin, Chicago — 

2 paratypes of a mite, Madagascar; Dr. Carl 
Drake, Ames, Iowa — 62 beetles, New Cale- 
donia and United States; Cameron Gifford, 
Valparaiso, Ind. — a frog; Harry Hoogstraal, 
Cairo, Egypt — 80 fishes, 13 mammals, 

3 paratypes of a tick, Sudan; Seymour H. 
Levy, Chicago Heights, 111. — a bird skin, 
Texas; Loren P. Woods, Homewood, 111. 
— 3 cave fish, Indiana; William J. Gerhard, 
Chicago — 250 bees, . wasps and allies, 
Colorado; Dr. Carl Krekeler, Valparaiso, 
Ind. — 20 cave beetles, Indiana and Ken- 
tucky; Lt. Comdr. D. C. Lowrie, San 
Francisco — 41 reptiles and amphibians, 
5 bats, Riu Kiu Islands and Ganiko, Oki- 
nawa; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 
— collection of fresh water mollusks and 
shells, Canada; Jack Moyer, Hamilton, N.Y. 
— -193 bird skins, Japan and Korea; Dillwyn 
Paxson, Fort Smith, Ark. — 2 sturgeon fry, 
Wisconsin; U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Pascagoula, Miss. — 82 lots of fishes, collec- 
tion of various lower invertebrates 



Diagnostic characters considered by 
physical anthropologists in differentiating 
racial types are illustrated by an exhibit in 
Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall (Hall 3). 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



BULLETIN ? 



U Vol.27, No.6 -June -1956 

icago Natural 
His tory Mils eunz 



Chicago Natural |^B 




Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



June, 1956 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 
Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery Hughston M. McBain 

Wm. McCormick Blair William H. Mitchell 

Walther Buchen John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Walter J. Cummings Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

Samuel Insull, Jr. John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Hughston M. McBain Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 



THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Jane Rockwell 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



BOOKS ON PLANTS 
OF ILLINOIS 

Reviewed by THEODOR JUST 

CHIEF CURATOR OF BOTANY 

VASCULAR PLANTS OF ILLINOIS. By 

George Neville Jones and George Damon 
Fuller. Prepared with the collaboration 
of Glen S. Winterringer, Harry E. Ahles, 
and Alice A. Flynn. The University of 
Illinois Press, Urbana, and the Illinois 
State Museum, Springfield (Museum 
Scientific Series, Vol. VI). xii+593 pages, 
1,375 maps. Cloth. $10. 

Students of our local flora will welcome 
this addition to their libraries and use it 
profitably in conjunction with the senior 
author's Flora of Illinois (second edition, 
1950). Vascular Plants of Illinois contains a 
wealth of information about the nearly 2,500 
native and introduced species of ferns and 
fern allies and seed plants definitely known 
to occur in the state, their distribution by 
county, scientific and common names, 
synonyms, subspecific entities, range, habi- 
tat, and type locality. While the families 
and orders are essentially arranged according 
to the well-known and widely used Englerian 
system of classification, the genera and 
species follow alphabetical sequences for 
ease of reference. The symbols shown on 
the distribution maps are backed up by 
some 200,000 herbarium specimens. The 



general features of the flora and vegetation 
of Illinois are described (pages 4-7) and 
illustrated by a vegetation map (page 8). 
Three endemic species are known from 
Illinois, namely the Kankakee mallow 
(Iliamna remota), the saprophytic annual 
Thismia americana, probably the rarest 
plant in the United States because it has 
never been found again after its original 
discovery, and the composite Aster chasei, 
limited to a small area near Peoria. An 
annotated list of principal collectors, cover- 
ing the period from 1795 to 1950, a detailed 
bibliography, a list of new nomenclatural 
combinations, addenda, and an excellent 
index conclude this useful book. But the 
authors are convinced that "the age of 
discovery and exploration of our flora is as 
yet apparently far from ended." 



FLORA OF WINNEBAGO COUNTY, 
ILLINOIS. An Annotated List of the 
Vascular Plants. By Egbert W. Fell. 
Collaborators: George D. Fuller and 
George B. Fell. Published by Nature 
Conservancy, Washington, D.C., in co- 
operation with Rockford Natural History 
Museum and Nature Study Society of 
Rockford. viii+207 pages. Illustrated by 
the author. Paperbound. $2.75. 

Situated half-way across the state along 
the Illinois-Wisconsin line, Winnebago 
County is 24 miles square, about the average 
size of counties in Illinois. Originally 
covered mostly by prairie, the county in- 
cludes other important habitats such as 
woods, sand areas (the largest in Illinois), and 
wet areas. The flora as presented in this 
pocket-size manual consists of 1,013 native 
species and 97 introduced ones, but it has 
a definite northern-prairie aspect because it 
includes 202 northern species and 473 
"more likely to be found in prairie habitats." 
All relevant details regarding the environ- 
ment, pertaining to cultural features, cli- 
mate, geology and physical features, types 
of habitats, distribution of species, and plant 
refuges, are treated in the introduction. The 
annotated list of the plants is replete with 
observations and comments by the author, 
attesting his intimate knowledge of this area 
and its plant life. In addition, he pays 
appropriate tribute to the distinguished 
botanist Michael Schuck Bebb, long a resi- 
dent of the county and its first ardent col- 
lector of plants. With a few exceptions 
(photographs of principal habitats), the 34 
illustrations are full-page drawings of 
selected species by the author. This Flora 
is eloquent evidence of the wise use made of 
time and enthusiasm by the author, a retired 
physician, whose aim is "to picture the 
plant life of our county as it is now." 



■THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



Our cover shows a view of an 
egg-gallery and many larval tun- 
nels made in the outer wood of an 
American elm by elm bark- 
beetles. These insects spread the 
fungus that causes the Dutch elm 
disease currently threatening 
thousands of trees in the Chicago 
area and already epidemic in 
many parts of the United States. 
A model of one of the villains — an 
elm bark-beetle — is shown in the 
photograph inset in the lower 
left-hand corner of the cover. 

The Museum has placed an ex- 
hibit in Stanley Field Hall to 
illustrate the principal facts 
about the Dutch elm disease — 
what it is, how it is spread, and 
what is necessary to combat it. 
The model of an elm bark-beetle, 
80 times life-size, was made for 
the exhibit by Samuel H. Grove, 
Jr., Artist-Preparator, and is 
shown about 30 times life-size in 
our cover picture. An article by 
Dr. John W. Thieret, Curator of 
Economic Botany, about the 
threat to Chicago's elms appears 
on page 3. 



How color, shape, and pattern help to 
camouflage and protect birds is illustrated 
in the adaptive-coloration exhibit in Board- 
man Conover Hall (Hall 21). 



NEW MEMBERS 

(April 16 to May 15) 

Associate Members 

Miss Lucile M. Beckstrom, Dr. Vincent 

A. Costanzo, Jr., Victor E. Gidwitz, Kenneth 
G. Hecht, Thomas A. Patterson, Keith P. 
Rindfleisch, Vernon L. Wesby, Russell M. 
Wicks, John S. Woolman 

Annual Members 

E. E. Ballard, Dr. Paul S. Barclay, James 

B. Blaine, Dr. Walter Briehl, W. E. Cairnes, 
Albert J. Carr, J. B. Carroll, Dr. John A. 
Caserta, Richard S. Claire, James P. Cody, 
Charles B. Coursen, Richard W. Douglass, 
Tolman G. Everett, Ralph Falk II, Harry 
Fishman, E. Montford Fucik, Lincoln O. 
Gatter, William N. Genematas, Edward E. 
Grosscup, R. Emmett Hanley, Arthur C. 
Harrison, Emmett C. Harvey, William O. 
Heath, M. E. Hellman, Alfred G. Hewitt, 
Hoyt S. Hill, William N. Hoelzel, M. J. 
Holland, Paul W. Holtz, Robert B. Jarchow, 
John P. Jurgatis, John Laidlaw, Jr., Merwin 
Q. Lytle, F. O. Marion, Dr. Erich R. 
Maschgan, A. K. Maxwell, Jr., Harold M. 
Mayer, Arthur F. Mohl, William A. Noonan, 
Jr., George A. Rink, Leo H. Schoenhofen, 
Richard H. Schweers, Karl P. Shuart, Anton 
E. Svec, H. B. Tellschow, R. E. Towns, 
Norman H. Tracy, Paul Weir, Allen Wilson, 
Mrs. William J. Wood, LaGrange Worth- 
ington, Dr. Ernest B. Zeisler 



An exhibit of selected butterflies and 
moths occupies four cases in Albert W. 
Harris Hall (Hall 18). 



June, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 3 



FACTS ABOUT DUTCH ELM DISEASE TOLD IN NEW EXHIBIT 



By JOHN W. THIERET 

CURATOR OF ECONOMIC BOTANY 

IN THE UNITED STATES ALONE, 
plant diseases cause an estimated loss of 
three billion dollars a year. In spite of the 
importance of phytopathology (the study 
of plant ills) and the logic of including this 
science under economic botany (a subject to 
which four halls of Chicago Natural History 
Museum are dedicated), the Museum, until 
now, has never devoted an exhibit to any 
phase of pathology. Appropriately enough, 
our initial venture in this field is concerned 
with the Dutch elm disease, a malady much 
in public notice and for which public educa- 
tion has been called "the key to adequate 
control." 

The clouds of World War I had scarcely 
lifted from western Europe when, almost 
simultaneously in the Netherlands, Belgium, 
and France, a wilt disease began to ravage 
elms. Dr. Bea Schwarz, of the plant 
pathology laboratory at Baarn, Netherlands, 
studied the disease and concluded that 
a fungus was the cause of the trouble. This 
newly recognized organism she named 
Graphium ulmi. Soon thereafter, a German 
investigator of the disease claimed that 
a certain bacterium was to blame. The 
pros and cons of the two viewpoints occupied 
pathologists for some time, but eventually 
Dr. Schwarz and Graphium ulmi won out. 
Now that the complete life-history of the 
causative fungus is understood, this organ- 
ism is referred to the Ascomycete genus 
Ceratocystis as C. ulmi. The threadlike 
filaments of this pathogen grow in the con- 
ducting cells of the young sapwood of the 
elm and damage the functional wood of 
the current season, interfering with the 
movement of water. 

The Dutch elm disease was so named, to 
the chagrin of Dutchmen, by a British 



pathologist because Dutch scientists were 
the first to study it and also because the 
assumption was that it started in the Nether- 
lands (some think, though, that it was 
noticed first in France). Whatever the 
country of its origin, it eventually spread 
elsewhere in Europe and is now known over 
almost all the continent and in Great 
Britain. Some twenty years ago certain 
European scientists were asserting that the 
disease spelled the doom of the elms of 
western and central Europe. While their 
pessimistic prophecies have not been liter- 
ally fulfilled, myriads of trees have suc- 
cumbed, and many areas, both urban and 
rural, have lost all or nearly all their elms. 

DISEASE ENTERS UNITED STATES 

Carpathian-elm burls from France are 
prized for veneers, and large quantities of 
the logs used to be imported annually into 
the United States. It was in such logs that 
the Dutch-elm-disease fungus was intro- 
duced into the New World. The disease 
was first reported here in Ohio in 1930. 
Three years later a new and abundant in- 
fection was found around New York City. 
Soon thereafter, the source of the infection 
was traced to Carpathian-elm logs at the 
port of New York. From these logs the 
causative fungus was isolated and specimens 
of two species of beetles that spread the 
fungus were obtained. So close was the 
relationship between the logs and the intro- 
duction of the disease that, in 1934, it was 
possible to make the following statement: 
"Every Dutch-elm-disease infection yet 
discovered in America is related geographi- 
cally to entry piers where imported elm-logs 
were unloaded or to railroads which hauled 
them." 

Now that the horse had been stolen, the 
barn door was locked: the United States 



Department of Agriculture issued a quaran- 
tine directive, effective October 21, 1933, 
regulating importation of elm logs in order 
to prevent further introduction of the fun- 
gus. But the parasite had already become 
quite well established and its spread by its 
coleopterous carriers was gaining momen- 
tum. Twenty-seven thousand elms were 
destroyed in the first five years after the 
disease was introduced into the New York 
area. By 1937 it had reached into Maryland, 
Virginia, West Virginia, and Indiana. A 
federal control-program made definite prog- 
ress against the disease until 1940, when 
adequate funds and labor could no longer be 
mustered. The elm killer was not eradi- 
cated, true enough, but intensity of infec- 
tion in several states was substantially re- 
duced. 

After 1940 the disease spread rapidly 
through the northeastern states and beyond. 
Today it is known to occur in all states from 
Tennessee northward and from Missouri 
and Illinois eastward and in the provinces 
of Quebec and Ontario. Outlying infections 
have occurred in Colorado. In Illinois the 
first case of Dutch elm disease was found in 
1950 near Mattoon. One case was known 
in that year. In each succeeding year the 
number of cases and counties represented 
increased until, in 1954, 2,067 new cases 
were reported from 55 counties and, in 1955, 
an estimated 5,000 new cases from 75 coun- 
ties. In Champaign-Urbana alone more 
than 2,500 trees have been killed in but 
three years. 

WILTING AND DISCOLORATION 

The first symptom that attracts notice in 
Dutch elm disease is wilting and discolor- 
ation of leaves of one or more branches of 
the tree. This is called "flagging" because 
the infected branch stands out like a flag 



THE DISEASE IS CAUSED BY A FUNGUS 

THE .'Hi *■ UK FILAMENTS OF THi 
FUNGUS -CfcRArOCYSTlS ULMI- GROW 
IN THE CONDUCTING CELLS OF THE 
YOUMC SAPWOOD AND DAMAGE THE 
FUNCTIONAL WOOD OF THE CURRENT 
SEASON, INTERFERING WITH TH 
MOVEM-NT OF WAT" 8 . 



DUTCH ELM DISEASE 





THE FIRST APPEABANCE OF DUTCH CLM DISEASE j 
WAS IN THE NETHERLANDS, BElCrJM AND J 
FRANCE JUST AFTER WORLD WAR I. IT HAS 
SINCE SPBEAO OVER ALMOST ALL EUROPE. tN 
THE UNITED STATES IT WAS REST REPORTED IN ( 
I93G. TOOAY IT II KNOWN IN ALL STATES FBOM 
TENNESSEE NORTH AND FROM MISSOURI AND 
ILLINOIS EAST, AND IN COLORADO. 
IN EUROPE AND AMERICA MYRIADS OF ELMS 
HAVE DIED OF THE DISEASE. MANY AREAS 
HAVE LOST ALL OB MOST OF THEIR ELMS. 
DUTCH ELM DISEASE WAS SO NAMED BECAUSE 
DUTCH SCIENTISTS WERE THE FIRST TO STUDY 
IT INTENSIVELY AND BECAUSE IT WAS ASSUMED 
THAT IT STARTED IN THE NETHERLANDS 



IN THE UNITED STATES TWO SPECIES OF BARK 

BEETLES CARRY THE FUNGUS FROM DISEASED 

TO HEALTHY TREES 




DUTCH ELM DISEASE: PART OF EXHIBIT EXPLAINING ITS CAUSE, EFFECT, AND CONTROL 



Page k 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



June, 1956 



from the rest of the tree that, at this stage, 
is a normal healthy green. Eventually 
many branches show this wilting and dis- 
coloration as the disease spreads. Infected 
elms may die within a few weeks or live for 
several years. Positive diagnosis of Dutch 
elm disease can be made only by laboratory 
culture of the fungus from infected wood 
because other fungus diseases cause symp- 
toms similar to those of Dutch elm disease. 
Specimens for culture should be 8 to 10 
inches long and at least one-half inch in 
diameter and should be taken from a live 
wilting branch that shows brown streaking 
or discoloration on the surface of the wood 
under the bark or in the outermost ring of 
wood. Such a symptom is typical of several 
fungus diseases of elm. 

Specimens to be submitted for diagnosis 
of Dutch elm disease should be wrapped in 
waxed paper before mailing to the labora- 
tory. In Illinois send them to the Natural 
History Survey in Urbana; in most other 
states, to the agricultural experiment sta- 
tion. Under sterile conditions in the labor- 
atory, chips of the discolored wood are 
removed and placed on a plate of nutrient 
jelly. If the fungus is present in the wood 
it will, in five days at room temperature, 
grow out into the jelly and form character- 
istic colonies encircling the chips. Through 
microscopic examination, the fungus can be 
positively identified. The sender of the 
specimens will then, of course, be notified 
of the results of the diagnosis. 

The Dutch elm disease provides a most 
instructive example of the intimate re- 
lationship that can exist between a plant 
pathogen and its vector, a biological agent 
of dissemination. In the United States 
three organisms play the role of villains in 
the elm-disease story: the causative fungus 
(Ceratocystis ulmi) and two insects, tiny 
creatures with big names — the smaller 
European elm bark-beetle (Scolytus multi- 
striatus) and the native elm bark-beetle 
(Hylurgopinus rufipes). The fungus alone — 
without the insects — would probably be of 
no consequence as a decimator of elms 
because it is dependent upon its vectors to 
transport it from tree to tree. The beetles 
alone may possibly hasten the death of 
weakened or dying elms by tunneling be- 
tween the bark and the wood, but these 
insects were in the United States long before 
the fungus was brought in and they did not 
cause much concern. However, the com- 
bination of the fungus and the beetles has 
proved catastrophic for our elms. 

HOW DISEASE IS SPREAD 

The elm bark-beetles (and here we are 
referring specifically to the smaller Euro- 
pean elm bark-beetle, a more efficient vector 
than the native species whose habits, though 
rather similar, differ in several important 
respects) breed in weakened or dying elms 
or in freshly cut elm wood and feed on 



healthy elms. These facts are the crux of 
the story. Weakened or dying elms or 
recently-cut elm trunks and branches with 
the bark intact are sought out by the beetles 
for a breeding place. Dutch-elm-diseased 
trees offer a particularly inviting site. The 
female beetle penetrates the bark and lays 
her eggs in a gallery that she digs between 
the bark and the wood. The larvae hatched 
from the eggs excavate feeding-tunnels that 
radiate from the egg-gallery. 

In Dutch-elm-diseased wood, the fungus 
grows and fruits abundantly in these tun- 
nels and galleries. The mature beetles cut 
their way out of the bark and emerge. If 
they are leaving Dutch-elm-diseased wood, 
spores of the fungus are likely to be clinging 
to their bodies. The beetles fly immediately 
to healthy trees, where they feed on bark and 
wood, principally in the crotches of twigs. 
It is through the feeding wounds made by 
the beetles that Dutch-elm-disease fungus 
is introduced into the tree. While the 
beetles feed, fungus spores clinging to their 
bodies may become dislodged and get into 
the sap stream of the tree. The fungus then 
develops and rapidly spreads, and eventual 
death of the tree results. 

It is upon the close relationship between 
the bark beetles and the disease that control 
measures are based. At the present time, 
no treatment is known that can cure a tree 
once it is diseased (exception: sometimes 
immediate removal of a flagging branch will 
eliminate the infection), and no method of 
immunizing trees against the fungus has 
proved effective. Therefore control meas- 
ures are aimed at the bark beetles in an 
attempt to prevent the insects from carrying 
the fungus from infected to healthy trees. 
In the struggle toward this goal, two ob- 
jectives are paramount: (1) to prevent the 
beetles from feeding on healthy trees and 
(2) to reduce beetle populations through 
elimination of breeding sites. 

Bark beetles may be prevented from 
feeding on trees by spraying the trees with 
DDT in the form of an emulsion before the 
insects become active in the spring. Actu- 
ally, because of the long residual effective- 
ness of such DDT sprays, the spraying can 
be done any time between leaf drop in the 
fall and the appearance of new leaves in 
the spring. A second spraying may be 
given in July to prevent feeding by the 
second brood of beetles. These sprays must 
be so applied that all bark surfaces are 
thoroughly covered with the emulsion. For 
continuous protection, trees must be sprayed 
every year. Each spraying increases the 
amount of DDT on the bark and covers all 
new branches. 

'SANITATION' MEASURES 

The destruction of all dead and dying elm 
wood that can be used by bark beetles as 
breeding grounds is called "sanitation." By 
thorough sanitation, which should extend 



over as wide an area as possible, bark-beetle 
populations can be considerably reduced, 
and thereby the chances of the transfer of 
the fungus from diseased to healthy trees 
become less. In addition, the destruction 
of such elm wood removes a possible source 
of build-up of the fungus. 

Two additional aspects of the Dutch-elm- 
disease problem should be mentioned: the 
attempts to breed and select elms that are 
resistant to the fungus, and the need for 
public education about the disease. 

All members of the genus Ulmus — the 
elms — appear to be susceptible to the 
disease. Some, however, are considerably 
more resistant than others. Our American 
elm (U. americana) is, unfortunately, one of 
the most susceptible. Quite resistant species 
are the frequently cultivated Chinese elm 
(U. parvifolia) and the Siberian elm (U. 
pumila). The attempts to breed and select 
strains of various elms that are highly re- 
sistant to the disease (such attempts have 
been made principally by the Dutch) have so 
far produced at least two strains that are al- 
most immune, the "Christine Buisman" and 
"Bea Schwartz" elms. Already these trees 
have been set out in many areas in Europe 
and America to replace elms destroyed by 
the disease. Further work can be expected 
to produce additional resistant strains. 

COMPLETE DESTRUCTION 

The Dutch elm disease is capable of 
almost complete destruction of our American 
elms. This sobering fact should be more 
generally known than it appears to be. The 
disease is too often regarded by Mr. John 
Q. Public as something that "can't happen 
here" in his community. But it can — and 
perhaps will — spread to wherever elms are 
planted and wherever the insect vectors are 
able to thrive. Along with the realization 
of the appalling possibilities of the disease 
should go the assurance that adequate con- 
trol is possible and, indeed, has been 
achieved in many areas. Here, then, enters 
the important role of public education. In 
areas to which the disease has not yet spread 
and even in those where the disease is 
present, one finds too frequently apathy or 
resignation to loss of elms. Such apathy 
and resignation are the result of ignorance 
of the facts. How many times I have heard 
statements such as: "The Dutch elm 
disease? Oh, there's nothing we can do 
against it," and "Yes, a control program 
would be fine, but sanitation and spraying 
are too costly for our community." 

To the first statement the reply, as in- 
dicated before, is that adequate control is 
possible by means of programs of sanitation 
and spraying. If the responsible officials 
and the other citizens of a community are 
aware of this, control programs can be 
organized and carried out. The alternative 
to control might well be the task of removing 
{Continued on page 5, column S) 



June, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



SOUTHWEST EXPEDITION 
BREAKS NEW TRAILS 

By PAUL S. MARTIN 

CHIEF CURATOR OF ANTHROPOLOGY 

THIS SEASON the 1956 Southwest Ar- 
chaeological Expedition will move head- 
quarters about 130 miles westward from 
Pine Lawn, New Mexico, into eastern Ari- 
zona. The "new" area fits in a triangle 
roughly bounded by the towns of Show Low, 
St. Johns, and Springerville, Arizona. The 
area is "new" in the sense that it has never 
before been worked archaeologically. 

In a sense, we are "pursuing" the Mo- 
gollon Indians, for our present hypothesis 
is that when they abandoned the Pine 
Lawn-Reserve area they moved first north- 
westward and then northward. Therefore 
our project may be considered in one sense 
a continuation of our old one, and in another 
sense a new task. 

The new area is separated from the old by 
three mountain ranges that may have had 
important ecological influences on the 
culture in its "new" home. It is quite 
likely, also, that we shall find some early 
(pre-A.D. 1000) or even very early (pre- 
Christian era) evidences of occupation; and 
if so, it will be interesting to find what 
happened when the indigenous inhabitants 
met the Mogollon Indians from the Pine 
Lawn-Reserve area. 

TRIBES MAY HAVE MERGED 

We feel that the late efflorescence of the 
Hopi and Zuni cultures in A.D. 1300-1400 
may be largely the result of inspirations and 
innovations transmitted to these people by 
the Mogollon Indians. In fact, it is quite 
probable that the Mogollon Indians even- 
tually moved into Hopi and Zuni towns or 
merged with them in some manner. We 
may have had then the mingling of two 
cultures and peoples. In fact, I am making 
the wild guess that the Zuni language — 
a language that cannot as yet surely be 
fitted into any linguistic grouping and thus 
appears to stand alone — may be the Mo- 
gollon language! This is certainly going out 
on a limb, and someone may saw it off from 
under me, for it is a guess merely based on 
hunches and probabilities. 

Certainly none of these hypotheses and 
wild guesses will be confirmed or even 
partly substantiated by our expedition this 
summer. Our first task is to ready our 
camp for future work — the cataloguing, 
photographing, and classification of objects 
to be dug up. 

If we have time and money left, we shall 
probably not dig during this season but 
instead devote our efforts to reconnaissance 
work — that is, to searching for and making 
notes about ancient ruins in an area em- 
bracing approximately 700 square miles. 
This is no small task, indeed, and we shall 
certainly not complete it all this summer; 



but we may be helped in this work by 
a student from the University of Arizona. 
The scope of our aims in the new area 
may be illustrated by listing some of our 
accomplishments in twelve seasons of dig- 
ging in the Pine Lawn-Reserve area: 

1. We obtained and published data on 
population growth and decline, on the 
changing of a method of subsistence from 
gathering wild foods to farming, on inter- 
relationships between settlement patterns, 
economic activities, and on certain aspects 
of the social and religious life in this previ- 
ously unstudied area. 

2. The concept was gradually developed 
that the major subcultures of the Southwest 
were not separate isolated developments 
but were all derived from a primitive com- 




EXAMPLE OF MOGOLLON POTTERY 
This bowl, believed to have been made about A.D. 
1300, was brought to light in the Foote Canyon 
Pueblo dig in New Mexico by the 1955 Southwest 
Archaeological Expedition. The 1956 expedition 
will seek for both earlier and later types of pre- 
historic pottery. 

mon Inter-Mountain culture that extended 
from Oregon and Idaho southward to the 
northern parts of Mexico and probably 
flourished as early as 11,000 years ago. 

3. We uncovered about 5,000 years of 
continuous history — the longest established 
and best worked-out sequence in the South- 
west (this history throws light on the 
incipient stages in the growth of civilizations 
and on what causes a civilization to grow). 

4. The earliest pottery in the Southwest 
was found. 

5. We discovered an unusually primitive 
variety of corn believed to be the oldest or 
one of the oldest yet discovered in the 
Southwest (this has brought about revolu- 
tionary changes in archaeological hypo- 
theses and interpretations). 

6. We recovered the largest and most 
diverse collection of ancient food plants 
ever found in North America. 

Many other details could be listed, but 
enough has been said, I think, to indicate 
that the twelve seasons in Pine Lawn- 
Reserve area (1939-55, except the war 
years) were successful. But far beyond 
this aspect lies another deeper appeal and 
satisfaction in our work. We have been 
fascinated by the beauty and compelling 



DUTCH ELM DISEASE 
EXHIBIT OPENED 

(Continued from page U) 

and disposing of scores, hundreds, or thou- 
sands of dead elms. And here a reply to 
the second statement can be made by re- 
calling the words of a speaker at a recent 
conference on the disease: "I have heard the 
statement 'We should let them [elms] all die 
and be rid of the problem.' Let such 
a statement be challenged by the fact that 
the cost of removing one large city elm 
would take care of that same tree for the 
lifetime of the individual that made the 
statement, if not more." And, remember, 
after a community spends money to protect 
elms from the disease, the trees will still be 
there but when a community spends money 
to remove dead trees, denuded streets and 
lowered property values are the result. If 
people are made aware of the facts con- 
cerning Dutch elm disease and if they act 
on the knowledge that they will then have, 
the American elm will not need to go the 
way of the American chestnut. 



The Museum's Dutch-elm-disease exhibit, 
now on view in Stanley Field Hall, was pro- 
duced by Dr. John W. Thieret, Curator of 
Economic Botany, and Samuel H. Grove, 
Jr., Artist-Preparator. Materials used in the 
preparation of the exhibit were supplied by 
Dr. Richard J. Campana, Section of Applied 
Botany and Plant Pathology, Natural His- 
tory Survey, Urbana, Illinois; Instituut 
voor Toegepast Biologisch Onderzoek in de 
Natuur, Baarn, Netherlands; United States 
Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, 
Maryland; The Oliver Corporation, Chicago; 
Standard Oil Company, Chicago; and 
Department of Plant Pathology, New York 
State College of Agriculture, Cornell Uni- 
versity, Ithaca, New York. 



orderliness of the development of human 
societies, and we have been able to pass this 
on to thousands of others by lectures, 
popular articles, and monographs. The 
society we were studying was just one cell 
in the Organism of Society and the develop- 
ment of this cell that was revealed to us 
by our sweat and shovels was a powerful 
confirmation of our belief that man, 
unaided, except by his Creator, will attain 
great heights. 

The technical aspects of our 1955 season 
now are being written up by my colleague, 
Dr. John B. Rinaldo; while I, in between 
visitors, telephone calls, and other duties, 
have been slowly writing a popular book 
on the history of the Mogollon Indians. 
Just what it will be called is not settled, 
but this book is intended for the layman 
interested in this subject, be he sixteen years 
of age or sixty. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



June, 1956 




HOW FISHES FLOAT 
WHILE SUBMERGED 

By EDWARD M. NELSON 

ASSOCIATE, DIVISION OF FISHES 

HOW OFTEN have you stood in front 
of an aquarium and wondered how the 
fishes could remain motionless, apparently 
freely suspended in the water? We know 
that the "higher" fishes are among the few 
animals capable of being so suspended in 
the medium in which they live. Flying, 
gliding, and jumping animals must return 
immediately to the surface of the earth 
when their energy of locomotion is used up. 
Most bottom-living fishes and the sharks 
likewise must rest upon the bottom when 
they stop moving. 

AN ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE 

How is it possible for certain fishes to 
remain suspended in the open water? Let 
us digress from fishes 
and consider a very 
interesting physical 
experiment, the Car- 
tesian Diver. 

This experiment can 
be performed with 
simple materials found 
at home (see figure 1). 
We need: (1) a tall 
bottle — a quart milk- 
bottle will do, (2) 
a "diver" — any small 
vial or bottle, (3) 
a diaphragm, such as 
a flattened balloon, 
and (4) water. Fill 
the bottle to the top 
with water. Pour 
enough water into the 
"diver" so that it will 
just float when placed 
open-end down in a sink full of water, and 
then transfer the "diver" to the bottle 
(this is the trickiest part of the entire 
procedure and may require several trials 
before it is properly done). After the 
"diver" has been placed in the bottle, open- 
end down, and is just floating at the top, place 
the diaphragm across the top of the bottle, 
stretching it tightly and securing it about 
the neck of the bottle with a rubber band. 
Now we are ready to perform the Car- 
tesian-Diver experiment. Apply pressure 
to the diaphragm by pushing down on the 
center with your fingers. The "diver" will 
thereupon descend in the water, even to the 
bottom. With practice you can make 
the "diver" stay at any particular level you 
desire. Note how the water-level within 
the "diver" rises when pressure is applied 
to the diaphragm (the volume of air con- 
tained inside the "diver" is reduced). 

The explanation of this experiment re- 
quires the use of several laws of physics: 

1. Water (a liquid) is for ordinary pur- 
poses noncompressible. 



Fig. 1. The Cartesian- 
Diver Experiment. 



2. Air (a mixture of gases) is compress- 
ible within the limits of pressure and tem- 
perature. 

3. Charles' Law — the volume of a gas 
varies directly with changes in temperature. 

4. Boyle's Law — the volume of a gas 
varies inversely with changes in pressure 
(the greater the pressure, the less the gas 
volume). 

5. Pascal's Law — pressure applied to an 
enclosed system (liquid and/or gaseous) is 
transmitted equally in all directions. 

6. Archimedes' Principle — an equilibrium 
is reached in water when the weight of the 
immersed body exactly equals the weight 
of the volume of water displaced (the 
weight-volume relationships of each are 
equal to one another). If the weight of the 
immersed body is less, the body floats 
upwards. If the weight is more, the body 
sinks. 

Since our experiment is of such a short 
time-duration, we can dispense with the 
effects of Charles' Law in our considerations. 
When pressure is applied to the diaphragm, 
pressure is automatically applied to the 
water filling the bottle. Through the action 
of Pascal's Law this pressure is transmitted 
equally to all surfaces within the bottle. 
The water, however, is noncompressible and 
will resist the applied pressure. The air 
inside the "diver," on the other hand, is 
compressible and the pressure applied to its 
surface through the open end of the "diver" 
will cause the volume to be reduced (Boyle's 
Law). We arranged that the amount of air 
in the "diver" was just enough to float it, 
but now, with the volume of air reduced by 
added pressure, it is no longer sufficient to 
float the "diver" and hence the "diver" 
sinks. We can make the "diver" remain 
at any particular level through the action 
of the Archimedean Principle because the 
actual total pressure (weight of the column 
of water plus the applied pressure) varies 
with the depth of the water. 

BUOYANCY IN TELEOST FISHES 

The "higher" fishes, called teleost fishes, 
are the most numerous fishes in our present 
geological age and hence most familiar to 
us. These teleost fishes usually possess 
within their bodies a gas-filled sac known 
as the swim bladder (see figure 2). Most 
bottom-living and torrential-stream-living 
members of this group have secondarily lost 




Fig. 2. Diagram of a fish showing swim bladder. 



their swim bladders as part of their adapta- 
tion to their special habitats and habits. 

The swim bladder of the teleost fishes 
serves varied functions, but we are con- 
cerned here only with its function of buoy- 
ancy, which has two phases: (1) balance and 
(2) space-position. As far as balance is 
concerned, the swim bladder is of such 
a shape and is so situated in the body of the 
fish that the normal posture of the fish is 
horizontal. An interesting special condition 
is that to be seen in the sea-horse, whose 
posture is vertical rather than horizontal. 
While this fish is feeding, however, it fre- 
quently changes to a horizontal position. 
The swim bladder of the sea-horse is of the 
two-chambered variety, with upper and 
lower chambers. When the upper chamber 
is expanded with gas, the posture is upright. 
When the musculature of the upper chamber 
contracts, the gas is forced into the lower 
chamber, thus altering the center of gravity 
of the sea-horse to the extent that its body 
"falls" forward and the fish becomes 
horizontal. 

When considering space-position we must 
remember that for every 32 vertical feet of 
water an additional weight equivalent to one 
atmosphere of air pressure (at sea level, 
14.7 pounds per square inch of body surface) 
is added to the weight of the column of 
water. Thus, as one descends in the aquatic 
environment, the pressure upon the surfaces 
of the body increases rapidly. It can readily 
be seen from this that there is actually 
a different total pressure at every different 
level in the water. 

FISH HAS CONTROL 

The teleost fish with a gas-filled swim 
bladder is essentially an animated Car- 
tesian Diver. One main difference, however, 
is that, within limits, the teleost fish is 
apparently capable of controlling the 
volume of gas and thus the activation of the 
system comes from within the "diver" 
rather than as the result of applied external 
pressures. 

Exactly how this control is brought about 
in the fish's body is not yet entirely under- 
stood and more study is required to com- 
plete our knowledge of this subject. In 
some fishes the swim bladder is connected 
with the gut by an open tube. Here the 
excess gas can be readily eliminated through 
the tube and gut. When at the surface of 
the water these fishes can, and do, gulp air 
directly. How the gas volume is increased 
otherwise is unknown. Other fishes have 
special glandular areas in the swim-bladder 
wall. Some of these areas secrete gases 
while others absorb them, thereby in- 
creasing or decreasing the volume of the 
gases in the swim bladder. Still another 
possibility is the actual compression of the 
gas in the swim bladder by active muscular 
contractions, either of the entire body-wall 
(Continued on page 8, column S) 



June, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



COMMUNITY SINGING 
BY BIRD CHOIRS 

By AUSTIN L. RAND 

CHIEF CURATOR OP ZOOLOGY 

THE OTHER DAY a friend of mine was 
telling of the community singing that 
was popular before the days of radio and 
television. For a time, years ago, he had 
eked out a meager salary with a pittance 
earned by leading the singing in a mid- 
western village. For an hour in the evening, 
by exhortation and example in the village 
park, he had the villagers singing. I thought 
as I listened, "Why, that's not too unlike 
what some birds do." 

The voice of the greater shearwater is 
used in a communal courtship. The sound 
is "Ma-ma-ma ..." or "Ha-ha-ha . . ." 
It is described by the few who have heard it 
as having a peculiar, strident, breathless 
quality with an effect, when many birds 
perform at once, of "screaming cacophony." 
Nevertheless, it is music to shearwater ears, 
and it is actually their song. 

These far-ranging sea birds, smaller rela- 
tives of the albatross, roam over the whole 




Atlantic from Cape Horn to South Africa 
and north to Newfoundland and Norway. 
But when it is time for nesting they all 
return to the tiny, lonely Tristan da Cunha 
Islands in mid-South Atlantic, their only 
breeding grounds. Here they go ashore 
and form dense colonies. M. K. Rowan, 
stationed on Tristan, studied them in detail. 

HUNDREDS JOIN IN 

He found, in the close-packed colonies, 
when one pair of birds started to sing, others 
joined in at once until the voices of hun- 
dreds of birds were swelling the strident din. 
Then just as suddenly they stopped and all 
was quiet for a time. It was, he writes, 
especially impressive at night when in the 
darkness the "enormous volume of sound 
ebbs and flows," coming now from one direc- 
tion, now from another. 

The jackass penguin gets its name from 
the likeness of its melancholy call to the 
bray of the donkey. On the Falkland 



Islands, near the southern tip of South 
America, A. F. Cobb writes that when one 
of these penguins starts its doleful bray 
others answer until the whole district is 
moaning in chorus. Sometimes the birds 
call on land, sometimes when they are at sea. 
Possibly, Cobb suggests, the reported wails 
of ghosts of drowned sailors were in reality 
the woebegone "hullooow's" of jackass 
penguins. 

A concert of bird voices can travel far, 
like a wave through the West African forests, 
as Harry A. Beatty found in Liberia when 
he was collecting birds for Chicago Natural 
History Museum. Especially is this true 
of the plantain eater, a large greenish rela- 
tive of the cuckoos, which lives there. 
Beatty writes me that when an impulsive 
bird strikes the first clarion note, at once 
others take it up. The chorus swells. The 
first birds soon stop but others, farther off, 
are taking it up, and long after the first 
birds are quiet you can hear birds in the far 
distance. Possibly the notes are relayed 
a long distance. 

It is not always the call of one of their 
own kind that sets off a bird chorus, as E. A. 
Preble found when he was traveling on the 
barrens east of Hudson Bay. The arctic 
loon was noisy there. It is noted for its 
peculiar loud, weird, and prolonged shrill 
scream. A lone bird, it is said, may howl 
like a fiend for up to a half-hour at a time, 
and a howl of a timber wolf or some other 
sound may set off a chorus of the wild cries. 



STAFF NOTES 



George I. Quimby, Curator of North 
American Archaeology and Ethnology, at- 
tended a field meeting of the Friends of the 
Pleistocene in northern Michigan last 
month. The organization is composed of 
glacial geologists, soil scientists, archae- 
ologists, foresters, botanists, and zoologists. 
On this trip the group examined glacial and 
late glacial phenomena between Traverse 
City and the Straits of Mackinac .... 
George Langford, Curator of Fossil Plants, 
and Orville L. Gilpin, Chief Preparator of 
Fossils, collected specimens of fossil plants 
during a recent field trip to Alabama, Ten- 
nessee, and Kentucky. Dr. Rainer Zan- 
gerl, Curator of Fossil Reptiles, Dr. Eugene 
S. Richardson, Jr., Curator of Fossil In- 
vertebrates, Dr. Robert H. Denison, Cu- 
rator of Fossil Fishes, and Preparator Gilpin 
were interviewed about dinosaurs on tele- 
vision over WTTW Henry S. Dy- 

bas, Associate Curator of Insects, recently 
lectured on the seventeen-year cicada before 
the Chicago Entomological Society and the 
Barrington Natural History Society. He 
lectured on other subjects for the Depart- 
ment of Zoology of the University of 
Chicago. 



LAPIDARIES DISPLAY ART 
AT MUSEUM IN JUNE 

AN ART practiced by a comparatively 
_l\. small number of people the world over 
and by few amateurs will be the subject 
of a special exhibit during June in Stanley 
Field Hall at Chicago Natural History 
Museum. This is the lapidary's art — the 
cutting and polishing of gems and the 
creation of jewelry. 

The Chicago Lapidary Club is the nucleus 
in the Chicago area of a small but devoted 
band of "rockhounds," as they call them- 
selves, who range abroad in the field to 
collect gem material for their creative work. 
For the sixth successive year, the lapidary 
club will hold its Annual Amateur Hand- 
crafted Gem and Jewelry Competitive Ex- 
hibition at the Museum. Formal presenta- 
tions of awards were made at the Hamilton 
Park Field House during a three-day pre- 
view in May. 

All those participating in the contest live 
in Chicago and suburbs within a 50-mile 
radius of the city. Included are not only 
members of the Chicago Lapidary Club but 
also other amateur lapidary and jewelry 
craftsmen of the area. Many of the con- 
testants have received instruction through 
facilities offered by the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict in the field houses maintained in small 
parks in many parts of the city and have 
done much of their work there. Those 
entrants in the contest who offer jewelry 
creations not only must cut their gems but 
also must prepare the gold and silver 
mountings and carry out the design-work. 

Those who competed and whose creations 
were judged worthy of exhibition are divided 
into two classifications — novices and ad- 
vanced workers. In each classification the 
exhibits are divided into ten specialized craft 
divisions: cabochon-cut individual gems, 
faceted individual gems, collections of 
specific gems, general gem collections, in- 
dividual jewelry, jewelry sets, special 
pieces, collections of polished specimens or 
slabs, enameled jewelry, and enameled 
special pieces. Trophy cups, medals, and 
ribbons have been awarded in each division. 
In addition to the individual awards, 
there are three special trophies for top 
winners. One is the Dalzell Trophy, 
awarded to the best of show. Another is 
the Presidents' Trophy, which goes to the 
outstanding first-prize winner among lapi- 
dary exhibits. Third is the Councilmen's 
Trophy, awarded to the outstanding jewelry. 



Daily Guide-Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered daily 
except Sundays under the title "Highlights 
of the Exhibits." These tours are designed 
to give a general idea of the entire Museum 
and its scope of activities. They begin at 
2 p.m. on Monday through Friday and at 
2:30 P.M. on Saturday. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



June, 1956 



CERTIFICATES AWARDED TO 'MUSEUM TRAVELERS' 




Thirteen children who successfully com- 
pleted four Museum "journeys" each and 
demonstrated the knowledge they gained by 
correctly answering questionnaires about 
each trip were awarded official "Museum 
Traveler" certificates last month. Eight 
of the children are shown in the photograph 
with Miss Miriam Wood, Chief of the James 
Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Founda- 
tion, who has charge of this and the Mu- 
seum's many other programs for children, 
and with John R. Millar, Deputy Director 



of the Museum, who presented the certifi- 
cates. Marie Mangold (front row, second 
from left) and Konrad Banasak (not in 
photograph) successfully completed five 
journeys each, more than meeting the re- 
quirements. Others in the photograph are: 
(front row, left to right) Jeanne-Marie 
Hansen, Alan Chill, and Sarah Strandjord; 
(back row) John Robinson, Lucinda Woods, 
Bill Heilig, and David Strandjord. Also 
awarded certificates were Boyce and Carol 
Brunson and James and Ronald Molnar. 



Artist Appointed in Zoology 
Miss Marion Pahl, of Berwyn, Illinois, 
has been appointed Artist in the Depart- 
ment of Zoology. Miss Pahl studied at the 
School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 
where she earned degrees of Bachelor of 
Fine Arts and Bachelor of Art Education. 
She has taught art in the St. Francis School 
of Art, Lafayette, Indiana, and in the 
Berwyn public schools. Before coming to 
the Museum she was employed at the Art 
Institute in the Burnham Library of Archi- 
tecture and in the Slide and Photograph 
Department. 



Reptiles and Amphibians until 1941 and as 
Chief Curator of Zoology from that year 
until 1955. He has gained world renown 
for his achievements in his special field of 
herpetological research, and he is continu- 
ing his investigations at the Museum since 
his retirement last year. 

Dr. Schmidt recently returned from 
Europe, where he was engaged in a research 
project at museums in Brussels, Paris, and 
London. 



Karl P. Schmidt Elected 
to National Academy 

Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, Curator Emeritus 
of Zoology, has been elected to membership 
in the National Academy of Sciences, Wash- 
inton, D.C. This is one of the outstanding 
honors attainable by a scientist. Dr. 
Schmidt's election was in recognition of his 
long career as a zoologist, during thirty- 
three years of which he was a member of 
the staff of this Museum, as Curator of 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of principal gifts re- 
ceived during the past month. 

Department of Anthropology: 

From: Col. Richard B. Stith, Lacon.Tni. 
— Japanese documents relating to the Point 
Barrow expedition, Japan 

Department of Geology: 

From: Gemological Institute of America, 
New York — natural pearl and cultured 
pearl 

Department of Zoology: 

From: Bernard Benesh, Burrville, Tenn. 
— 456 beetles; D. G. Constantine, Atlanta, 
Ga. — 21 bats, California 



Museum Members to Receive 
Director's Annual Report 

The Annual Report of the Director to the 
Museum's Board of Trustees, a book of 
151 pages with 24 illustrations, was pub- 
lished in May, and copies will soon be sent 
to every Member of the Museum. In the 
book, printed by the Museum's own press, 
Director Clifford C. Gregg presents details 
of the work of 13 expeditions and numerous 
smaller field trips that added to the exhibi- 
tion and research collections. The areas 
explored range from Africa to "the lost 
world" of Venezuela. The report covers 
additions to the exhibits, educational 
activities of the N. W. Harris Public School 
Extension, the James Nelson and Anna 
Louise Raymond Foundation, and the 
Edward E. Ayer Lecture Foundation. Also 
outlined are progress in research, the growth 
and operation of the Library, and the work 
of all divisions of the Museum, as well as the 
institution's financial condition. 



HOW FISHES FLOAT- 

(Continued from page 6) 

or of special muscles associated with the 
wall of the swim bladder. 

Whatever the method, it seems certain 
that the teleost fish does control the gas 
volume in the swim bladder because: (1) 
the fish does move about from one pres- 
sure level to another, apparently freely, 
and (2) it does not, while alive, react 
passively, like the Cartesian Diver, but 
resists actively changes in pressure when 
applied under experimental conditions. 
Thus we see that the teleost fish, which 
possesses a swim bladder, is capable of 
adjusting its weight-volume relationships so 
as to come into an equilibrium with the 
water at any desired depth and remain 
there motionless. 

OTHER BUOYANT FORMS 

Like the teleost fishes, some man-made 
objects function as animated Cartesian 
Divers. These objects are the submarine 
and the lighter-than-air craft. Here the 
weight-volume relationships are adjusted by 
controls within the object in order to effect 
rising, sinking, or remaining at any desired 
level. 

The submarine is a large-scale Cartesian 
Diver. The volume of air in the ship is 
increased by "blowing out" the water ballast 
and is decreased by taking on additional 
water. For lighter-than-air craft (balloons, 
blimps, dirigibles, etc.) the weight- volume 
relationship is altered by throwing off the 
sand ballast or by allowing some of the gases 
to escape. The great difference in the 
relative weights of the water and air (770:1) 
necessitates much more delicate manipu- 
lation to control the lighter-than-air craft 
than the submarine. 



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Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



July, 1956 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery Hughston M. McBain 

Wii. McCormick Blair William H. Mitchell 

Walther Buchen John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Walter J. Cummings Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

Samuel Insull, Jr. John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Hughston M. McBain Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Thbodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMijoj Jane Rockwell 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



LEON L. WALTERS 

1888-1956 

Leon L. Walters, Taxidermist at Chicago 
Natural History Museum for 43 years, died 
suddenly on June 7, 1956, of a coronary 
thrombosis. He was born on May 1, 1888, 
in Portland, Jay County, Indiana. Mr. 
Walters was the in- 

^ ventor of the ' 'Walters 

M^ Process" for making 

_»^_ v plastic models of am- 

phibians and reptiles, 
a process that has ap- 
^H plications also in the 

taxidermy of birds 
and mammals. This 
introduced a wholly 
new lifelike quality in 
the Museum represen- 




I 



Leon L. Walters 



tation of animals 
wherever surface de- 
tail and translucence 
are required. He began work in 1911 at the 
then Field Museum in the old building in 
Jackson Park and retired in 1954, con- 
tinuing to work and experiment with plastics 
at his home. 

Mr. Walters grew up on his father's farm 
near Salamonia. A born naturalist, with 
an Indiana farm-boy's interest in squirrel 
hunting, he was directed to museum col- 
lecting and to mounting birds and mammals 
by a farm neighbor, Nicholas J. Money, 



who encouraged him to apprentice himself 
to John Dell Allen, at Mandan, South 
Dakota, a taxidermist with a national 
reputation. Three years with Allen con- 
firmed Mr. Walter's interest in museum 
work, with thoughtful attention to the 
defects of existing processes in taxidermy. 

When the young Leon Walters came to 
the Museum in 1911, he served first as 
assistant to Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, Curator 
of Mammals (later Chief Curator of 
Zoology), but when opportunity came, he 
transferred to the newly founded school- 
service department, the N. W. Harris 
Public School Extension. There he had 
scope for his interest in museum techniques 
and there also was demand for the collecting 
of local material. Collecting associated him 
with H. L. Stoddard, the bird taxidermist 
of the same department, and the two formed 
one of those deeply congenial friendships 
of men. Every weekend was spent in the 
field with shotgun in hand, especially in the 
marshland that surrounded Chicago before 
the city came, of which some fine remnants 
persisted up to World War I. The wealth 
of bird life in these marshes is notable even 
to the present day. I have heard Mr. 
Walters say that it was the draining of the 
Worth marshes that led him to leave the 
Museum and Chicago to homestead land 
in eastern Montana. 

Mr. Walter's stay in Montana was 
fortunately not a long one. On his return, 
in the great expansion of the whole Museum 
program preceding and after the move to 
the new building in Grant Park, he found 
adequate scope and opportunity for his 
talents as artist, technician, and inventor, 
as well as for travel and collecting. Within 
the Department of Zoology a Museum 
romance presently developed between the 
young assistant in mammalogy and the 
departmental secretary, Miss Ethel Dow, 
who as Mrs. Walters continued to work in 
the Museum for many years, serving as an 
all but indispensable administrative assis- 
tant in the Director's office. 

Little needs to be added to the account 
of Mr. Walters' work that appeared in the 
Museum Bulletin of April, 1954, written 
on the occasion of his retirement. His 
monuments are notable exhibits in the halls 
of the Museum — the crocodile and sea- 
turtle groups and many fine individual 
reptile-models in the Hall of Reptiles and 
the white rhinoceros, the hippopotamus, 
and the great gorilla, Bushman, in the Hall 
of African Mammals. 

Mr. Walters is survived by his widow and 
two sons, Allen Dow, born in 1927, and 
David William, born in 1926. The Walters 
home was a center of interesting activities, 
for Mr. Walters carried on much of his 
experimental work there. There one might 
see a plastic boat in process of construction, 
the famous horse's head with the hair trans- 
ferred to a celluloid skin, and various 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



"It's all in the day's work" at 
the Museum as one man faces the 
task of unpacking, sorting, classi- 
fying, and studying 20,600 birds of 
Asia that have just arrived. But 
the days at this task will run into 
many months or several years for 
Melvin A. Traylor, Jr., Assistant 
Curator of Birds, who nevertheless 
is seen enthusiastically seeking 
out treasured specimens of rare 
kinds. The story of this large 
and important new acquisition is 
told on page 3. 



experiments with artificial arms and hands. 
After his retirement there were also the 
remarkable plastic models of the several 
grades of eggs, used by egg-inspectors as 
their standards for grading. 

Leon L. Walters lived a remarkably full 
and happy life, for he was exactly fitted for 
the unique environment afforded by a 
natural history museum. 

Karl P. Schmidt 
Curator Emeritus of Zoology 



NEW MEMBERS 

(May 16 to June 15) 

Contributor 

Miss La Verne Hand 

Associate Members 

Dr. David G. Berens, Mrs. Clarence W. 
Bowen, J. Lester Cunningham, Harold Eng- 
lish, R. Rea Esgar, Robert F. Grohe, Rol- 
wood R. Hill, Howard Knight, Mrs. 
Lawrence E. Norem, Calvin P. Sawyier, 
William A. Singer, Mrs. Jack A. Williamson 

Annual Members 

John W. Batey, Jr., Edward C. Becker, 
Clinton C. Bennett, A. R. Boe, John A. 
Brandenburg, Robert Buchbinder, B. H. 
Bunn, C. M. Bunn, Harry Burg, Clyde B. 
Colweil, Jr., G. R. Cox, W. E. DeCamp, Ed- 
ward W. Dobek, Francis M. Doan, James V. 
Donoghue, Joseph E. Eschbach, Harold R. 
Fagerson, Mrs. C. B. Falk, M. S. Firth, 
Kenyon S. Fletcher, V. J. Fletcher, D. G. 
Ford, Harry E. Gurvey, Cornelius J. Hauck, 
Hugh J. Helmer, George R. Hornkohl, 
William B. Hummer, G. Allan Julin, Jr., 
Ernest W. Kilgore, Willard K. Lasher, 
Philip A. Lieber, Endieott R. Lovell, Wil- 
liam H. Lowe, Donald MacArthur, Dr. 
Paul J. Patchen, Waldo Mauritz, Thomas 
E. McDowell, James D. McElroy, Aldo L. 
Moroni, Miss Emmy Lou Packard, William 
J. Quinn, Milton D. Robinson, Justin A. 
Rollman, John B. Simpson, Alexander Sklar, 
Joseph J. Stefan, Albert P. Strietmann, 
John R. Waterfield, Warren J. Weber, 
Kenneth V. Zwiener 



The Hall of Whales (Hall N-l) contains 
an exhibit illustrating the anatomy of these 
giant creatures, the largest of all mammals. 



July, 1 956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



PageS 



TWENTY THOUSAND BIRDS OF SOUTHERN ASIA RECEIVED 



By MELVIN A. TRAYLOR, Jr. 

ASSISTANT CURATOR OF BIRDS 

SOME 20,600 birds of Asia arrived at the 
Museum last month. This huge assem- 
blage of specimens, known to ornithologists 
as the Koelz Collection, is probably the last 
of the great private collections of birds, and 
the Museum was indeed fortunate in having 




THRILLS FOR ORNITHOLOGISTS 
Discovery of a new snow partridge from Afghanistan 
in newly arrived collection of birds from Asia brings 
elation to Melvin A. Traylor, Jr., Assistant Curator 
of Birds (left), and Emmet R. Blake, Curator of 
Birds. The partridge is one of 68 type specimens 
found in the shipment of more than 20,000 birds. 



the opportunity to purchase it. This large 
collection was gathered over the years on 
expeditions to Iran, Afghanistan, India, 
Nepal, and Assam by Dr. Walter N. Koelz, 
of Waterloo, Michigan. With the acquisi- 
tion of this collection a new and most im- 
portant area for research has been opened for 
the Division of Birds. Gaps in our collec- 
tions of birds of Asia will be filled, and the 
study of many forms peculiar to this region 
will now be possible. 

The high mountains of the Himalayas, 
rising abruptly from the plains of India, 
form, with adjacent ranges, a massive 
barrier across southern Asia from Afghanis- 
tan east to Szechwan and Indochina. The 
southern slopes of the mountains are the 
meeting-ground of the palearctic fauna from 
the north and the tropical Indo-Malayan 
fauna from the south, and here is found the 
Himalayan fauna, which is particularly rich 
and varied. The Museum had several 
excellent collections from Indochina, Szech- 
wan, Nepal, and Kashmir, but their useful- 
ness was hampered by gaps that existed 
between them (see accompanying map). 
Now that these gaps have been closed, it 
will be possible to study the variation and 
relationships of Himalayan birds through- 
out their whole range and to clarify the 



problems that arose when they were studied 
piecemeal. 

In a collection of more than 20,000 birds 
from the Himalayas there is naturally an 
abundance of forms to illustrate this varied 
and complex fauna. Mingled with the 
ravens, crows, chickadees, nuthatches, 
creepers, and wrens that would not appear 
out of place in Europe and North America 
are the brilliantly colored parakeets, sun- 
birds, bee-eaters, and flower-peckers associ- 
ated with the tropics. Along with these are 
the numerous groups found only in this 
montane fauna — brightly colored tree-pies, 
rose finches, and pheasants and the con- 
trastingly more somber laughing thrushes 
and scimitar babblers. 

COMPARISONS NOW POSSIBLE 

Of greater importance than the variety 
are the long series available of each form. 
Dr. Koelz took particular care to collect 
a series of each form wherever time per- 
mitted. There are many groups, such as 
the warblers, where there are numerous 
species that are closely similar. Without 
adequate series of all forms available for 



our now adequate material have to do with 
species exhibiting color phases and seasonal 
changes in plumage. With only single 
specimens from scattered localities showing 
different plumages, it is difficult to know 
whether one or more species are involved. 
However, long series representing different 
regions and all seasons permit these prob- 
lems to be settled. Fortunately Dr. Koelz 
made a special effort to get thorough repre- 
sentation of the larger birds such as hawks 
and owls, and the collection is particularly 
rich in these often-neglected families. 

Much of the material in the collection is 
unworked. Some of the palearctic families 
have been studied, and Koelz himself has 
described many new forms. Sixty-eight 
type specimens, the individual birds from 
which the new forms were described, are 
included with the collection and add much 
to its usefulness. Completing the identifica- 
tion of the collection is an opportunity for 
many fruitful years of study. 

'SPARE TIME' TASK 

Among the noteworthy aspects of this 
collection, assemblage of which is only 



-3p^ 




CHINA 




OLD COLLECTION 
XvX'X NE" COLLECTION 



NEW REGIONS REPRESENTED IN BIRD COLLECTION 
Map of southern Asia shows how the new Koelz Collection (dotted) fills the gaps between the areas repre- 
sented in other Museum collections (stippled) along the mountain massif of the Himalayas and adjacent ranges. 



direct comparison to determine the key 
characters of each species, it has sometimes 
been impossible to identify single specimens 
properly. Now, however, with this wealth 
of new material, these problems will be 
minimized. 

Other problems that can be resolved with 



a part of Koelz's accomplishment, probably 
none is more remarkable than the career of 
the collector himself. It is hard to conceive 
of a man who could collect such numbers of 
birds in twenty-five years of travel in Asia as 
anything but a most energetic bird-collector. 
Yet Dr. Koelz, who accomplished this, was 



Page b 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



July, 1956 



primarily a plant explorer and botanical 
collector and accumulated the bird collec- 
tions in his "spare time." 

The story of Dr. Koelz*s amazing career 
can best be told in his own words, although 
they give but a small hint of the tremendous 
energy involved in his accomplishments: 

"As for my personal history, I was 
trained as a linguist but on graduating from 
college was offered an assistantship with 
Professor Redford in Ann Arbor, who 
couldn't find a zoology graduate to help 
with a course in field zoology. The U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries wanted someone to 
study the scales of the Great Lakes white- 
fishes and I undertook it for a doctor's 
thesis. It turned into a long job of deter- 
mining the systematic status of the numer- 
ous forms and of recording life-history data 
on them. The work was interrupted by the 
illness of a friend that took me to New 
Mexico for a year or so and ended my 
connection with U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 
On returning to Ann Arbor I continued with 
fish for the University and then for the 
State of Michigan. I had gone one summer 
with Byrd and MacMillan on the first 
attempt to fly to the North Pole and had 
attracted the attention of botanists by the 
plant collection made then, so that when 
[Dr. Elmer D.| Merrill, then of the New York 
Botanical Garden, was looking for a field 
botanist for work in the Himalayas I was 
given the job. It was a temporary affair 
but who would turn down a chance to see 
the Himalayas? I made a collection of 
plants and birds there; the former went to 
New York Botanical Garden and Kew and 
the birds, some 3,000, were mostly moth- 
eaten or are in the American Museum of 
Natural History. A collection of seeds sent 
to the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
turned out to have some interesting items 
and a collection of Tibetan and Indian 
paintings brought back got me a Freer 
fellowship in Asiatic art that sent me back 
to India. The university got, in addition 
to one of the finest collections of Tibetan 
paintings and Kashmir shawls, a large 
amount of herbarium material and 8,000 
birds. The university had no other job for 
me so I took an offer from the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture to get seeds for them in 
India, and since then I have had only an 
honorary connection with the University of 
Michigan. The U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture assignments ended around 1950 and 
I moved then to Assam to round out the 
Indian bird-collection. 

"As for the motives of my activity, one 
has to do something and I find there is 
usually time for anything one wants to do. 
Moreover, I did a better job of seed col- 
lection when I had the additional incentive 
to collect herbarium and zoological speci- 
mens. The main difficulty is caring for 
what you get. But there I had the Thakur 
RupChand and his Tibetan friends, who 



were always with me. (RupChand is now 
here in Waterloo with me.) What such 
help was you can see from one of the 
Tibetan's remarks. He said other workers 
wait for the sun to go down but we hope it 
won't so we can finish our work. And we 
often needed an overtime sun when after 
a 15-mile march we had 30 birds to make 
up." 

The last sentence alone suggests the labors 
involved, year after year, in accumulating 
his vast collections. As MacMillan truly 
said on his return from the Arctic, "Dr. 
Koelz is the most energetic naturalist I have 
ever known." His most recent honor was 
the award of the Frank N. Meyer medal 
from the American Genetic Association, 
a medal bestowed on only four other 
Americans. Dr. Koelz is now living in his 
boyhood home in Waterloo, Michigan, and 
we trust he is enjoying his well-earned 
vacation. 

The Division of Birds is indeed fortunate 
in securing this collection. Not only is its 
value as research material unsurpassed, but 
it is a collection impossible to duplicate 
under present political conditions in Asia. 



GEM AND JEWELRY SHOW 
WINNERS LISTED 

Gold and silver trophy cups, medals, and 
medallions as well as many blue, red, and 
gold ribbons were awarded by the Chicago 
Lapidary Club to prize-winners in the club's 
annual show held at the Museum last month. 
This year's event was the Sixth Annual 
Amateur Handcrafted Gem and Jewelry 
Competitive Exhibition. 

The Dalzell Trophy, gold cup for the best 
exhibit in the show, was awarded to J. 
Lester Cunningham. He also won the 




PRESS CONFERENCE 
Newspaper photographer poses models in Museum. 

Councilmen's Trophy, third of the grand 
prizes, and three divisional cups in various 
sections of the show. The second grand 
prize, the President's Cup, and a divisional 
first-prize were awarded to Lucille Statkus. 
Winners of other divisional first-prizes were: 



WILDLIFE PAINTINGS 
BY CHICAGO ARTIST 

A one-man show of forty-five wildlife 
paintings by Tom Dolan, Chicago free- 
lance artist, will be held in Stanley Field 
Hall of the Museum from July 1 through 
July 31. Birds, fishes, mammals, and in- 
sects in the Museum collections were 
studied and used as models by Dolan, and 
some of the specimens will be displayed with 
the paintings. 

Also to be shown are published illustra- 
tions made from Dolan's paintings that 
have been used in books and magazines 
(among them Encyclopaedia Britannica and 
Chicago Tribune Sunday Magazine), on 
calendars, and in advertising. The com- 
bination in the display of the original ma- 
terials, the artist's creations, and the pub- 
lished reproductions will make this special 
exhibit notably different from the usual art 
exhibit — ordinarily no one but the artist 
sees all three phases. In addition, the 
exhibit is an example of a little-known 
Museum service: that of making material 
available for a variety of practical uses other 
than research and education. 

Dolan during the past two years has been 
working for several months at a time as 
a volunteer in the Museum's Department 
of Zoology in co-operation with Dr. Karl 
P. Schmidt, Curator Emeritus of Zoology, 
Loren P. Woods, Curator of Fishes, Rupert 
L. Wenzel, Curator of Insects, Dr. Robert 
F. Inger, Curator of Amphibians and Rep- 
tiles, and Philip Hershkovitz, Curator of 
Mammals. In his paintings Dolan has 
developed an individual style that combines 
a use of colors in various media on an 
engraved scratchboard surface to produce 
sharply detailed and naturalistic results. 
Preparation of the scratchboard by special 
coating was required for certain of the 
paintings. In addition to the paintings, 
Dolan's exhibit will include drawings made 
for scientific publications of various divisions 
of the Department of Zoology. 



Marjorie Oliver, Frank Swisher, Margaret 
F. Cunningham, Louis and Lucille Statkus 
(jointly), Beatrice Raymond, Alvin Ericson, 
J. O. Bourdeaux, Tom Priest, Earl Chris- 
tensen, Paul Novak, Mrs. N. H. Maas, 
J. Keslin, and Marion Meers. 

Contributors to the success of the show 
were the young ladies shown in the accom- 
panying photograph — Miss Joan Atchley 
(left) and Miss Lonnie Johnson (right), 
models assigned through the courtesy of 
Patricia Stevens, Inc., to pose with selected 
exhibits for photographers from the news- 
papers. 



Sponges, sea urchins, sea stars, corals, and 
other marine invertebrates are displayed in 
Hall M. 



July, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



EXPEDITION TO BORNEO 
REPORTS PROGRESS 

THE FIRST REPORT from the Mu- 
seum's 1956 Borneo Zoological Expedi- 
tion was a letter from its leader, Dr. Robert 
F. Inger, Curator of Amphibians and Rep- 
tiles, written May 7, at a camp four days' 
travel by launch up the Kinabatagan River 
in North Borneo. Thanks to United Tim- 
bers, Ltd., his headquarters are in a new 
lumber camp on a 40-foot bank above the 
river. At least it was a 40-foot bank on 
April 22, when he arrived, but floods had 
raised the water 20 feet, although this is the 
dry season, when the river may rise or fall 
five to eight feet in a night. In the wet 
season, they tell Inger, the river can rise 
40 feet in one night's flood. 

This is forest country, which is why the 
lumber company is starting operations here, 
and the great trees tower so high that their 
lowest branches are hidden from view from 
the ground by second-story trees and sap- 
lings. On the low hills, clear sparkling 
streams tumble over mossy rocks from pool 
to pool, while in the low flat swamp-forests 
the streams are muddy and sluggish. From 
one clear stream, only five feet wide and three 
feet deep at most, Inger got twenty-seven 
species of fishes and ten species of frogs. 
As of the time of writing he also had a fine 
torrent tadpole completely unknown to him 
and not belonging to any species of frog he 
had collected. He was still hoping to find 
the adult frog. The muddy streams hold 
different fishes and most of the frogs are 
different, too. It is almost like collecting 
on quite different islands, instead of on 
different streams from the same camp. 

Inger writes that the most exciting catch 
so far has been a big green-and-yellow tree- 
frog with tremendous hands and feet that 
are completely webbed. The story goes 
that it can fly. Curator Inger thinks that 
possibly it can glide, like "flying" squirrels 
and "flying" lizards. At least, when he 
tossed one into the air, it spread its webbed 
fingers and toes wide, which probably 
doubled the surface area of the frog as it 
came down. 

Snakes, Inger has found, are almost un- 
obtainable. He knew that daytime hunting 
was unproductive, from his previous Borneo 
expedition in 1950, but he had hopes of 
night hunting. But it produced nothing. 
So far, Inger reports, he's seen only three 
snakes. Inger and the members of his party 
go out every day. They have turned over 
literally hundreds of logs, looking for bur- 
rowing snakes and so far have found just 
one specimen. 

In addition to P. K. Chin of the North 
Borneo Department of Agriculture, who is 
spending a month with Inger, his party 
includes a Dyak hunter who was with him 
on an earlier expedition, a Dusun cook, and 
a couple of "Orang Sungei" (literally, 



people of the river). The North Borneo 
Forestry Department was interested in 
obtaining botanical specimens from this 
area and attached three collectors to Inger's 
party. They work independently but 
helped build the field laboratory, a structure 
made of poles from the forest and of palm 
thatch. 

Dr. Inger hopes next to go to an area on 
the North Borneo-Indonesian Borneo bor- 
der and then on to Sarawak. 



Books 



HOW TO COLLECT SHELLS. A sym- 
posium. A publication of the American 
Malacological Union, Buffalo Museum of 
Science, Buffalo, N.Y., 75 pages. $1. 

Almost every visitor to an ocean beach 
becomes a beachcomber despite any initial 
resistance, because the strangely shaped and 
brilliantly colored shells he finds there are 
too attractive and too fascinating to be 
overlooked. However, after the first en- 
thusiasm over this newly discovered field of 
activity subsides, the collector becomes 
aware of the fact that the beach is just a 
vast mortuary where few shells containing 
living creatures can be found. Where does 
he have to look for inhabited shells? A great 
deal of trying in unprofitable localities and 
the expenditure of much time are required 
before the novice shell-collector learns where 
to seek, unless he has an experienced person 
to guide him or a good book to advise him. 
Such a book, and a very inexpensive one, 
too, is the one named above. Its various 
chapters, all of them written by persons 
known for their expertness in the field of 
shell collecting, introduce the would-be 
malacologist to the many different environ- 
ments in which mollusks, the animals which 
produce the shells, live, such as sandy or 
muddy areas, lagoons, inlets, rocky shores, 
etc. The various implements needed for 
collecting in each individual environment 
are described and hints for very unusual, 
special cases are offered. One chapter deals 
with the cleaning of the collected animals 
and how to prepare them for the shell col- 
lection. A list of outstanding books on 
shells is given, and so is a list of the national 
and local shell clubs the collector may join 
in order to meet people who share his in- 
terests. For its wealth of manifold infor- 
mation in this field, as well as for its inexpen- 
siveness, this book is recommended. 

Fritz Haas 
Curator of Lower Invertebrates 



PHONOGRAPH RECORDS 
OF NATURE'S MUSIC 

(Phonograph records reviewed in the Bul- 
letin are available in The Book Shop of the 
Museum. Mail orders accompanied by re- 
mittance including postage are promptly filled.) 

AMERICAN BIRD SONGS. Vol. I, 
second issue, 33 Vs r.p.m. Recorded by 
P. P. Kellogg and A. A. Allen. Cornell 
University Records, Ithaca, New York. 

$7.75. 

This is a revised and re-edited long-play- 
ing edition of the earlier Volume I and con- 
tains most of the species heard in the Volume 
I (78 r.p.m.) album. The continued de- 
mand for these records is evidence of the 
multitude of bird-lovers whose interest has 
been aroused and is maintained by material 
such as this. 

The continuity remains loosely ecological: 
birds of the north woods, of northern and 
of southern gardens and shade trees, of fields 
and prairies, and American game-birds, with 
about 60 voices featured and 28 background 
voices. 

One of the innovations in this recording 
is to have a bird start singing before it is 
announced. This I found a bit disconcert- 
ing at first, not realizing that the preceding 
bird had ceased to sing and was not trying 
to imitate something else. But I soon found 
myself waiting for the next song so I could 
identify the new song before it was an- 
nounced. 

My ear is not too good on bird songs, but 
I found that I had to keep changing the 
volume control to make the recorded songs 
sound like I remembered them. Probably 
this is because the songs have been recorded 
as close to the birds as possible, while in the 
field the songs ordinarily are heard from 
various distances. This should be remem- 
bered in learning the songs from records 
and then listening outdoors. 

Basically, this is a series of songs with the 
identifications, "This is the song of ... " 
I wonder if it isn't time to use widely other 
such varied approaches as have been started 
by J. H. Fassett, for one. Breaking a song 
down, for instance, building it up again, 
modifying speed, pitch, and volume, and 
then comparing this song with the songs of 
other birds, near relatives and distant ones. 
Or recording the vocabulary of a single 
species, from the nestling peep to the varied 
repertory of the adults — in courtship, fight- 
ing, and fleeing, alone and in company. 
Austin L. Rand 
Chief Curator of Zoology 



The Stone Age type of culture still preva- 
lent among native tribes of Australia may 
be studied in the exhibits in Hall A-l. 



How Big? 

Queries are frequently made about the 
area occupied by Museum exhibits. The 
48 exhibition halls provide 530,172 square 
feet of floor space, or the equivalent of 
12.17 acres. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



July, 1956 



'SUN DRUMS' OF ASIA 

By M. KENNETH STARR 

CURATOR OF ASIATIC ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

AN EXCELLENT EXAMPLE of 
a bronze drum belonging to a general 
type known in parts of eastern and south- 
eastern Asia during the past 2,000 years was 
recently received by the Museum as a gift. 
The donor is Oden Meeker, author, traveler, 
and now Mission Chief for the CARE 
organization in Laos, Indochina. This 
drum, highly valued as an addition to the 
collections of the Department of Anthro- 
pology, is notable for its skillfully executed 
decorative and symbolic designs in high and 
low relief from which it derives anthro- 
pological, artistic, and technical interest. 

The drum comes form Namtha, capital 
of an isolated province in mountainous 
northwest Laos. Namtha, which lies in the 
uppermost reaches of the Mekong River, is 
in the heart of the anthropologically complex 
region where China, Indochina, Thailand 
(Siam), and Burma meet. 

The drum is of lightly patinated cast 
bronze. Its general shape is that of a hollow 
cylinder with open bottom and closed top, 
about one and one-half feet high. The 
circular drumhead is nearly two feet in 
diameter, and its surface bears strongly 
executed decorative and symbolic designs. 
The center is marked by a circle that holds 
a stylized twelve-rayed sun figure cast in 
low relief. Outward from this are twenty- 
one concentric zones marked off by fine 
ridges in low relief. With the exception of 
the outermost one, these zones bear geo- 
metric and zoomorphic designs in the nega- 
tive. The geometric designs include circles, 
lozenges, and squares. The zoomorphic 
designs include representations of two kinds 
of birds. Astride the two outermost zones 
and spaced equally around the periphery of 
the drumhead in high relief stand four 
highly though deftly stylized frog figures. 
The body of the drum bears geometric 
designs. The Meeker drum has a striking 
resemblance to a Thai bronze drum that 
was presented to Queen Victoria and that, 
from its placement in Windsor Castle, is 
known as the Windsor Drum. 

RECORDS ARE MEAGER 

Despite the twenty centuries during 
which this general type of bronze drum has 
existed, the wide range over which it has 
been found, and the not inconsiderable 
number of specimens that have been col- 
lected, there is relatively little known about 
time and place of origin, people respon- 
sible, manner of diffusion, evolution in 
various areas, and symbolism and functions. 
This paucity of information results from 
a series of historical circumstances: (1) many 
of the peoples who made and used these 
drums have lived in remote areas of Asia 
not studied scientifically until recent dec- 
ades; (2) even Chinese scholars until very 



recently paid scant attention to the drums, 
partly because of lack of inscriptions and 
partly because the drums traditionally have 
been associated with the peoples of northern 
Indochina and with the non-Chinese peoples 
of south and southwest China whose cultures 
long were considered unworthy of attention; 
and (3) the majority of the peoples who 
used these drums maintained no written 
record. 

The earliest known examples of these 
drums have been uncovered in presumably 
non-Chinese burials in Tonkin, the portion 




'SUN DRUM' FROM LAOS 

Made of bronze, it is typical of drums known for 

the past 2,000 years in many parts of east Asia. It is 

a gift to the Museum from Oden Meeker. 

of northeastern Indochina contiguous to 
China. Although the precise dates of the 
Dongson culture represented by these burials 
is not yet fixed, it would seem that these 
early bronze drums, to judge from Chinese 
influence evident in various of the grave 
materials, are from about the beginning of 
the Christian era or perhaps slightly earlier. 
At that time peoples of non-Chinese culture 
were dominant not only in northern Indo- 
china but seem also to have been an im- 
portant if not dominant element in the 
southern half of what is now "China proper." 
Since then the drums in variant forms have 
been manufactured and used continuously 
to the present day. 

To judge from such factors as (1) the past 
and present geographic distribution of the 
drums, (2) their water-oriented symbolism 
(boats, frogs, fish, and water birds), and 
(3) the tendency of the Chinese to associate 
the drums with the southern non-Chinese 
peoples, the drums might be assigned to 
a more southerly origin, as for example the 
region encompassing littoral northern Indo- 
china and extreme southern China, and to 
peoples of non-Chinese culture. The distri- 
bution in central, south, and southwest 
China of place-names having the characters 
t'ung-ku (bronze drum) as a component is of 
possible historic significance. Locations 
including the words t'ung-ku occur in Hupei 
province (T'ungku-shan, T'ungku-pao), 



in Kiangsi province (T'ungku-hsien), in 
Kuangtung province (T'ungku-shan, T'ung- 
ku-hsti, T'ungku-wan), in Kuangsi province 
(T'ungku-t'an), in Kueichou province (T'- 
ungku-yai, T'ungku-wei), and in Ssuch'uan 
province (T'ungku-shan). A majority of 
these locations lie in the three extreme 
southern provinces of Kuangtung (including 
one location on Hainan Island), Kuangsi, 
and Kueichou. The history of a number of 
these locations includes references to the 
non-Chinese aborigines and to legends 
associated with the bronze drums. 

A WIDE RANGE 

These bronze drums in various forms 
have been reported from such widely sepa- 
rated proveniences as Inner Mongolia and 
the Indonesian islands of Java and Borneo. 
Seeming not to occur in this form in India, 
the drums are particularly well represented 
in the large region comprised of south and 
southwest China, northern Indochina, north- 
ern Thailand, and west-central Burma. 
The Museum collections include examples 
from south and southwest China, two of 
which are tentatively dated as being Later 
Han (a.d. 25-206), and from northern 
Thailand. The bronze drums are assumed 
to have had as their prototype wooden 
drums with heads of rawhide. Such an 
assumption in part is based upon the 
presence of such skeuomorphic vestiges as 
(1) handles ribbed in imitation of rope, (2) 
studs on the shoulder in possible imitation 
of nails, and (3) braidlike edging on the 
periphery of the drumhead and at the points 
of handle attachment. The drums vary in 
size, shape, and type of decoration, all of 
which bear relation to date and provenience. 
Despite the variations, however, these drums 
are unmistakably members of a single 
general group. Characterized as they com- 
monly are by a central sun figure, they 
might be well called "sun drums." 

The meaning of the symbolism in the 
wide variety of geometric, zoomorphic, and 
other designs on the head and body of the 
drums is difficult and, in some instances, 
impossible to ascertain. Attempts have 
been made to explain it in terms of magic 
and myth, and relationships with similar 
symbolisms from various times and areas 
have been suggested. Whatever its mean- 
ings, the symbolism would seem to bear 
a relation to a function of the drums, but 
the function is also open to question and 
a number of explanations have been put 
forward. 

One group of Chinese legends associates 
the drums with Ma Yuan, a Chinese general 
of the Han period who carried out military 
expeditions against the non-Chinese peoples 
of the south. It is recorded in the history 
of the Later Han that Ma brought bronze 
drums back from northern Indochina in 
a.d. 44, and it is noted that the drums were 
cast in the form of a horse. One fanciful 
tale relates that the drums were placed under 



July, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



mountain waterfalls so that the thunder of 
the water falling on them would deceive the 
rebellious natives into believing that the 
Chinese armies were near. Another re- 
counts that the innovation of the drums 
was occasioned by the rotting of the tra- 
ditional hide-drumheads under moist cli- 
matic conditions in south China. One 
legend is tied to another famous Chinese 
general and statesman, Chu-Ko Liang 
(a.d. 181-234), who also carried out ex- 
peditions against the southerners and whose 
name the Chinese sometimes give to the 
type of drum, the "Chu-Ko drum." 

USED IN RAIN RITUALS 

Miscellaneous explanations, of varying 
proportions of fact and fancy, cover a wide 
range. One, the most plausible and certainly 
the most common, ascribes to these drums 
the function of bringing rain. By the 
mechanism of sympathetic magic the drum, 
with its thunderlike sound and its water- 
oriented symbolism, especially the frogs, 
functioned to call down rain. Drums, 
though not specifically of bronze, were used 
in ancient Han China for such a purpose. 
Descriptions in the history of the Later 
Han of traditional rain-ceremonies refer to 
beating drums and placing five frogs in 
a carefully prescribed artificial pond. 
Bronze drums also have been used in Chinese 
rain-ceremonials during more recent cen- 
turies, and, according to U Lu Pe Win, 
Director of the Archaeological Survey of 
Burma, the Karenni, or Red Karen, of east 
central Burma still carry out annual rain 
ceremonies with such drums. Each tribe 
possesses such a "frog drum," some dating 
back to the 12 th century, and when not in 
ceremonial use the drums are stored away 
in a sacred place. 

Various other functions have been at- 
tributed to these bronze drums, as for 
example, that they were presented to non- 
Chinese chiefs as symbols of investiture 
and that they were used to summon the 
people in time of war or emergency. The 
drums have also been considered as em- 
blems of wealth and power, stemming back 
to a time when bronze was a metal of great 
value, available only to the privileged. 
Finally, the drums are reported as having 
served a wide variety of commonplace 
functions: as temple drums, as drums to 
make known deaths, and as drums to herald 
the coming of night. 

In dealing with both symbolism and func- 
tion, not only must fact be distinguished 
from fancy but also the original symbolisms 
and functions from the more recent. Cau- 
tion is particularly necessary with respect 
to function, for some of the functions at- 
tributed to the drums are purely imaginary. 
Furthermore, it is highly possible that in 
more recent times the drums have become 
diverse in function, having one function in 



one area and other possibly unrelated 
functions elsewhere. 

The Museum is grateful to Mr. Meeker 
for his gift of the drum. In the natural and 
physical sciences, the social sciences, and the 
humanities, research is dependent upon the 
accumulation, over years and centuries, of 
data and of the materials that provide data. 
It is in such a context, as well as in its more 
obvious aesthetic sense, that this Laotian 
drum should be thought of, for when the 
drum is so considered, its value is enhanced 
manyfold. 



JUNIOR 'ROCKHOUNDS' 




Busily identifying specimens during a re- 
cent rock and mineral workshop for children 
at the Museum are (left to right): Eileen 
Marszalik, Gary Gilbert, Diane Kelly, 
Steven Nestor, John Kozlowski, and Dennis 
Szymanski, all seventh graders from the 
Hurley School in Chicago. Twenty-four 
groups of upper-grade school students 
attended the sessions, which were held 
during May and June by the Museum's 
Raymond Foundation. 



'Postage-Stamp Safari' 
for Boys and Girls 

Museum Journey No. 6, open to boys and 
girls during visiting hours any day in July 
and August, is the "Postage-Stamp Safari." 
Children participating will receive travel 
instructions at the Museum entrances to 
aid them in hunting out the animals pic- 
tured on the postage stamps of many 
countries all over the world. Children who 
have completed this and three other 
journeys successfully will be given the title 
Museum Traveler and presented with an 
award by the Director of the Museum. 
After eight journeys the Travelers become 
Museum Adventurers and a special seal 
is attached to their original award. The 
five previous journeys were "Africa," 
"China," "Animals Around the World," 
"Toys," and "Bible Plants." Other jour- 
neys will be announced later, and boys and 
girls may start their series with any one 
of them. 



PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN 
IN JULY AND AUGUST 

Motion pictures and a puppet show on 
the stage of the Museum's James Simpson 
Theatre will be given free for children on 
Thursday mornings in July and August by 
the James Nelson and Anna Louise Ray- 
mond Foundation. The first of the six 
programs will be presented on July 5. 
There will be two performances of each 
show, one at 10 a.m. and one at 11 a.m. 
(because of an extra-long film on August 9, 
the second show on that date will begin about 
11:30 a.m.). No tickets are required. 
Children may come alone, accompanied by 
parents or other adults, or in organized 
groups. Following are the dates and titles: 

July 5 — Animal Pets 
Also a cartoon 

July 12 — Two Favorite Animal Pictures 
Also a cartoon 

July 19— The Three Bears 

(Puppet production on stage, by Apple 
Tree Workshop of Chicago Heights) 

July 26 — Folktales 
(Also a cartoon) 

August 2 — Nature's Children (repeated 
by request) 
Also a cartoon 

August 9 — Elephant Boy (repeated by 
request) 
Based on Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Book 
story of "Toomai of the Elephants" in 
India 



'Buffalo Hunts' at Museum 
for YMCA Children 

A new summer program, "A Buffalo 
Hunt," especially for groups of boys and 
girls from YMCA's, will be given at the 
Museum during the summer. The program 
includes two motion-pictures and the dis- 
tribution of direction sheets for the children 
to use in exploring Indian halls with ex- 
hibits pertaining to buffalo hunting. YMCA 
group leaders may arrange to participate 
by telephoning the Raymond Foundation 
at the Museum (WAbash 2-9410) at least 
one week in advance and making reserva- 
tions for a definite date and hour. 



Afro-Asian Link 

The natives of Madagascar are of mixed 
Asiatic and African origin, and their culture 
forms a link between cultures of Africa and 
those of Polynesia and Malaya. The Mu- 
seum possesses in Hall E the only important 
Madagascar collection in the United States, 
and it is believed to be one of the most 
complete in existence. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



July, 1956 



SUMMER LECTURE-TOURS 
GIVEN TWICE DAILY 

During July and August, guide-lecture 
tours of Museum exhibits will be offered in 
both the mornings and the afternoons of 
weekdays, Mondays through Fridays in- 
clusive. There will be no tours on Saturdays 
and Sundays or on July 4, but the Museum 
will be open during regular visiting hours, 
9 a.m. to 6 p.m. on those days. 

Except on Thursdays, the morning tours 
will be devoted to the exhibits in one 
department of the Museum. All afternoon 
tours (and also the tour on Thursday 
morning) will be comprehensive in scope, 
including outstanding exhibits in all de- 
partments. Tours are conducted by lec- 
turers of the Raymond Foundation staff. 
Below is the schedule that will be followed 
weekly in July and August: 

Mondays: 11 a.m. — Records from the Rocks 
2 p.m. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Tuesdays: 11 a.m. — Animals Around the 
World 
2 p.m. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Wednesdays: 11 a.m. — People and Places 
2 p.m. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Thursdays: 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. — Highlights 
of the Exhibits 

Fridays: 11 A.M.— The World of Plants 
2 p.m. — Highlights of the Exhibits 



STAFF NOTES 



The film "Yellowstone," prepared by 
John Moyer, head of the Museum's Di- 
vision of Motion Pictures, received a 
certificate of merit at the recent Fourth 
Annual Columbus Film Festival .... Bryan 
Patterson, Curator of Vertebrate Fossils 
until he recently left the Museum to join 
the faculty of Harvard University, has 
accepted an honorary appointment as 
Research Associate in Fossil Vertebrates, to 
which he was elected by the Museum's 
Board of Trustees .... Mrs. Maryl Andre, 
formerly of the Museum Library staff, has 
been transferred to the lecture staff of the 
Raymond Foundation .... Dr. Theodor 
Just, Chief Curator of Botany, has been 
appointed a member of the Subcommittee 
of Paleobotany, Ninth International Botani- 
cal Congress, to be held in Montreal in 
1959 .... Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, 
Curator of the Phanerogamic Herbarium, 
attended the meeting of the Central States 
Section of the Botanical Society of America 
in June. He also made field trips in south- 
western Wisconsin and northeastern Iowa, 
where he collected material for the Her- 
barium .... Dr. Robert H. Denison, Cu- 
rator of Fossil Fishes, is in northern Michi- 



gan collecting material for his division .... 
Dr. Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator of 
Geology, and Norman H. Suhr, Associate 
Curator of Mineralogy and Petrology, 
attended a recent X-ray diffraction lecture- 
course .... Philip Hershkovitz, Curator 
of Mammals, attended the annual meetings 
of the American Society of Mammalogists 
at Higgins Lake, Roscommon, Michigan, 
as did Mrs. Sophie Kalinowski, Osteolo- 
gist, and Luis de la Torre, Associate, Mam- 
mals .... Loren P. Woods, Curator of 
Fishes, spoke on Lake Michigan conserva- 
tion problems before the Isaac Walton 
League, Chapter No. 1, Chicago. He and 
Miss Laura Brodie, Assistant in Zoology, 
were delegates to the annual meetings of the 
American Society of Ichthyologists and 
Herpetologists at Higgins Lake in Michigan 
.... Miss Marilyn Jaskiewicz, a graduate 
of the secretarial school of De Paul Uni- 
versity, has been appointed Secretary for 
the Department of Botany. She replaces 
Miss M. Dianne Maurer who has left to 
resume studies at the University of Illinois. 



Zoo Directors Visit Museum 



1 ijpl 



WaSW 




Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, Curator Emeritus 
of Zoology (far right), holds up a portion of 
elephant hide as he explains taxidermic 
processes to delegates to the annual con- 
vention of the International Union of 
Directors of Zoological Gardens held in 
Chicago from June 3 to June 8. Dr. Rainer 
Zangerl (far left), Curator of Fossil Reptiles, 
listens along with delegates and their wives 
who visited the Museum during the con- 
vention. Left to right are Mrs. Ernest Lang 
and Dr. Lang, Director of Zoological 
Garden at Basel, Switzerland; Dr. H. Hedi- 
ger, Director of Zurich Zoological Garden; 
and Mrs. Walter Van den Bergh, wife of 
the Director of Societe Royale de Zoolog- 
ique at Antwerp, Belgium. 

Hosts to the convention were Robert 
Bean, Director of Brookfield Zoo, and R. 
Marlin Perkins, Director of Lincoln Park 
Zoo. 



AMERICANIZATION GROUP 
CEREMONY AT MUSEUM 

Graduating exercises for men and women 
who have arrived in this country as im- 
migrants from many lands during the past 
few years were held in the James Simpson 
Theatre of the Museum on June 14 by the 
Division of Americanization of the Chicago 
Public Schools. 

This ceremony, for many years an annual 
event in the Museum and always a moving 
one because of the gratitude expressed by 
these newcomers, sent forth about 1,200 
adults (out of a class totaling some 3,000) 
better prepared to take their place in the 
American social and economic structure. 
Many of them were people who had escaped 
from the dangers of iron-curtain regimes. 

The main address was given by Richard 
J. Daley, Mayor of Chicago, after Dr. 
Clifford C. Gregg, Director of the Museum, 
had welcomed them to the Theatre. 
Helen G. Lynch, Supervisor of the Di- 
vision of Americanization, was chairman. 
Present were nin€ty-seven teachers and also 
representatives of the U. S. Immigration 
and Naturalization Service, Illinois Society 
of Colonial Dames and Board of Education 
of Chicago. Diplomas and certificates were 
presented to those who had finished courses, 
and awards were made to winners of an 
essay contest conducted for the class by 
the Illinois Society of Colonial Dames. 



Latin-American Visitors 

A group of twenty distinguished edu- 
cators, both men and women, from Peru, 
Paraguay, Panama, and Nicaragua, touring 
this country under the auspices of the State 
Department, were visitors at the Museum 
on June 17. John R. Millar, Deputy 
Director, conducted them on a survey of 
the Museum's outstanding exhibits. Their 
Chicago hostess was Mrs. Howard R. 
Peterson, a Member of the Museum. 



Gifts to the Museum 
Department of Zoology: 

Dr. C. J. Drake, Ames, Iowa — wingless 
aradid bug, Puerto Rico; Cameron E. 
Gifford, Valparaiso, Ind. — snake; Richard 
T. Gregg, Baton Rouge, La. — 4 lots of fishes, 
Mexico; Grove Avenue School, Barrington, 
111. — barn owl; Harry Hoogstraal, Cairo, 
Egypt — 34 mammals, 4 frogs, 12 lizards, 
6 snakes, Egypt and Uganda; Mrs. Harry 
C. Pearson, Indianola, Iowa — African ele- 
phant hide; Dr. Charles A. Reed, Chicago 
— mammal skull, Washington; Simon Segal, 
Chesterton, Ind. — mammal, Illinois; Dr. 
Richard B. Selander, Urbana, 111.— 350 
Mordellid beetles, western United States; 
Dr. Katsuyki Yokoyama, Chicago — 5 sala- 
manders; Jack Moyer, Hamilton, N.Y. — 
82 birdskins, Japan and Korea; Dr. J. S. 
Schwengel, Scarsdale, N.Y. — collection of 
27 species of marine shells, worldwide; 
Roland von Hentig, Chicago — lizard, snake, 
Indonesian Borneo 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



HISTORY Vc/.27 Jb.8 
MUSEUM <j4u#uU *95^ 




Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



August, 1956 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery Hughston M. McBain 

Wu. McCormick Blair William H. Mitchell 

Walther Buchen John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Walter J. Cummings Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

Samuel Insull, Jr. John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Hughston M. McBain Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Jane Rockwell 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



ANTIOCH COLLEGE 
HONORS MUSEUM 

Chicago Natural History Museum has 
received a citation from Antioch College, 
of Yellow Springs, Ohio, for outstanding 
service to students during the past eleven 
years. The citation was received on behalf 
of the Museum at the college's commence- 
ment excercises, held June 23, by Dr. 
Clifford C. Gregg, Director. Samuel B. 
Gould, President of Antioch, made the pre- 
sentation, which was in recognition of the 
Museum's collaboration in the Antioch Col- 
lege Co-operative Work Plan. Under this 
plan the Museum has given, to date, employ- 
ment to 107 students as part-time assistants 
in its scientific departments. The citation 
reads as follows: 

"In 1946, the Director of Chicago Natural 
History Museum affiliated the Museum with 
the Antioch educational program by em- 
ploying students as assistants to its curators. 
Since that time more than a hundred 
Antioch students have known personally the 
devotion and patience of the naturalist and 
scientist. These students have learned to 
appreciate the necessity for accuracy of 
observation, the value of objectivity in 
analysis. They have cleaned skulls, split 
shale, prepared fish skeletons, made card 
catalogues, mounted plants, sorted pieces of 
pottery, pinned insects, catalogued geologic 



maps, prepared albums of pictures, recon- 
structed fossils, and done many of the chores 
required for the maintenance of a large 
museum whose primary purpose is educa- 
tion. After observing and participating in 
this activity, they have learned the appro- 
priateness of consulting a library to find out 
whether the information printed in a book 
is accurate. 

"Antioch College is proud of its associa- 
tion with Chicago Natural History Museum 
and is happy to acknowledge its debt of 
gratitude to the Museum's superb staff 
through this citation." 

Citations were received also by the Toledo 
Blade, represented by Paul A. Schrader, 
Director of News, and the YMCA Voca- 
tional Center, New York, represented by 
J. Lawrence Broderick, Executive Director. 



CURATOR APPOINTED 
TO OCEANIC POST 

Roland W. Force, formerly of Palo Alto, 
California, has been appointed to the staff 
of the Department of Anthropology as Cu- 
rator of Oceanic Archaeology and Eth- 
nology. Mr. Force recently returned to the 
United States after eighteen months of field 
work in Micronesia where with Mrs. (Mary- 
anne) Force, he conducted studies among the 
people of the Palau Islands (Western Caro- 
lines, in the Trust Territory of the United 
Nations). The project was for the Tri- 
Institutional Pacific Program jointly spon- 
sored by Yale University, the University of 
Hawaii, and the Bishop Museum in Hono- 
lulu. Mr. Force was an associate in eth- 
nology on the staff of the Bishop Museum. 
Prior to that he taught in the department of 
sociology and anthropology of Stanford 
University, of which he is a graduate and 
where he earned his master of arts degree. 
He is currently completing the require- 
ments for a doctorate at Stanford. 

The Museum position to which Mr. Force 
has been appointed has been vacant since 
the end of 1952 when Dr. Alexander Spoehr, 
the former curator, resigned to accept an 
appointment as Director of the Bishop Mu- 
seum in Honolulu. 



Show of Dolan Paintings 
Extended to August 26 

The one-man show of forty-five wildlife 
paintings by Tom Dolan of Berwyn, Illinois, 
originally scheduled only for the month of 
July, has been extended through August 26 
because of the unusual interest evinced by 
the public. This special exhibit is in Stanley 
Field Hall. It includes original paintings 
together with published reproductions of 
many of them and the actual Museum 
specimens of birds and other mammals used 
as models. 



■THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



The strange and little-known 
giant bromeliad Puya raimondii 
of the Bolivian and Peruvian 
Andes is the subject of our cover. 
Called "a sort of dinosaur among 
plants" by Dr. Lyman B. Smith 
of the U. S. National Museum (in 
his article on page 5), because it 
seems on the verge of extinction, 
the plant is found at high alti- 
tudes, and grows as tall as 30 feet. 
The illustration shows a section 
of a new mural in Hall 29 by E. 
John Pflffner, Museum Staff 
Artist. 



Death of Margaret M. Cornell, 
Former Museum Lecturer 

Word has been received of the death, on 
June 26, of Miss Margaret M. Cornell, 
former Chief of the James Nelson and Anna 
Louise Raymond Foundation for Public 
School and Children's Lectures. Miss Cor- 
nell joined the staff of the Museum as 
a guide-lecturer in 1926 and became head 
of the division in 1929. She retired on 
pension in 1939. Before coming to the Mu- 
seum she had been a schoolteacher in Ohio, 
Kentucky, and Illinois. She was an alumna 
of Kent Teachers College, the University of 
Chicago, and Northwestern University. 
Since her retirement she had lived with 
relatives in Mountain Lakes, New Jersey. 



NEW MEMBERS 

(June 18 to July 13) 

Life Member 

Mrs. Carl A. Birdsall 

Associate Members 

Mrs. Dorothy Mylrea Ebin, Mrs. L. 
Martin Hardy, F. L. Majka, William O. 
Petersen, Bert R. Prall, Kenneth Alan 
Rubinson, C. Radford Van Ness 

Annual Members 

Richard A. Aishton, William J. Burns, 
Mrs. C. N. Cahill, Clayton G. Cassidy, 
Mrs. Thomas R. Cravens, Wallace L. Craw- 
ford, James L. Curry, James G. Dern, 
Herman C. Edwards, Ralph Edmund Ernst, 
William E. Ferguson, Harry P. Gaughan, 
Howard D. Geter, Sr., Arthur Gettleman, 
Gregory J. Gyann, William G. Hart, Emil 
Holzwart, Eugene X. Humphrey, Theodore 
E. Jelm, George T. Jengel, Horace W. 
Jordon, Harry C. Kinne, Sr., Lester B. 
Knight, Michael H. Lyons, Edward E. 
Mack, Jr., Miss Mary F. Maier, James J. 
Mertz, Harry E. Moroni, Jr., James D. 
Stearns, H. W. Tenney, Master David R. 
Trace, Master Edward R. Trace, Master 
Peter A. Trace, George P. Treadwell, Dr. 
John T. Wegrzyn, Joseph Wegrzyn, Harry 
J. Williams 



August, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page S 



MUSEUM MEN TAKE CICADA CENSUS, TAPE-RECORD SONGS 



By HENRY S. DYBAS 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF INSECTS 

IN THE BULLETIN (May issue) we 
called attention to the scheduled appear- 
ance this year in northern Illinois and adja- 
cent areas of Brood XIII of the Seventeen- 
year Cicadas and briefly reviewed some of 
the facts about the life of this most unusual 
insect. Since then the cicadas have made 
their "dramatic and noisy debut" and 
vanished for another seventeen years. But 
they have left conspicuous evidence of their 
short visit in the browned twigs killed by 



phenomenon in our region. We had an 
unusual number of calls at the Museum 
about these insects. A certain number of 
calls, as could be expected, concerned pos- 
sible damage to fruit trees and ornamental 
trees and shrubs. In this connection, it was 
apparent that the name "locust," often 
applied incorrectly to these insects, was in 
itself a source of confusion. We had to 
assure a number of people that cicadas do 
not devour flowers and crops as do the true 
locusts although they do damage twigs with 
their egg-laying activities. Some people 





• * 'if ' '-.i 



W .' '' T-t* 



N 



Pho 






CICADA NYMPHS, LIFE-SIZE 
graph in actual size of a small section of forest floor, only- a few inches across, shows individual 
emergence holes of the cicada nymphs. Two of the nymphs are crawling on the surface. 




their egg slits. A drive through the suburbs 
and forest preserves around Chicago gives 
one a good idea of the abundance of these 
insects a few weeks ago. Many trees have 
lost an appreciable number of their terminal 
twigs and some large groves appear ex- 
tensively scorched. The large trees soon 
will recover from this extensive "pruning," 
judging by past experience, but some small 
trees — especially newly planted ones — may 
be severely injured. 

At the peak of their activity, the cicadas 
aroused a great deal of interest — more than 
I can remember for any other natural-history 



found the song of the cicada annoying and 
even oppressive after a time; others enjoyed 
the chorus of sound. I had a phone call 
from a woman who wanted to know the 
exact distribution of the cicadas so that she 
could plan her vacation trip to avoid areas 
where they occurred. 

On the other hand , there was a great deal of 
genuine interest in the cicadas themselves — 
in their appearance and behavior and in the 
odd facts of their unusual life. Still another 
area of interest was in the field of nature 
photography. Photographers looking for 
unusual subjects found the Periodical Ci- 



cadas remarkably photogenic and "co- 
operative," with many interesting activities 
and postures. We have already seen some 
unusually fine still and motion pictures at 
the Museum that were taken by amateur 
as well as professional photographers during 
the recent cicada emergence. 

MANY PATHS IN RESEARCH 

In addition to their exceptional popular 
interest, Periodical Cicadas have interested 
entomologists and biologists in general for 
a long time. Hundreds of technical papers 
have been written on various aspects of their 
life, yet many intriguing questions remain 
unanswered. Why, for example, the extra- 
ordinary length of the life cycle? Why does 
each brood emerge in one great swarm 
instead of being spread out more evenly over 
several years? What goes on underground 
in the long years between each emergence? 
The number of such questions could be 
multiplied indefinitely. 

This region has only one brood of Periodi- 
cal Cicadas and thus there is only one short 
period of a few weeks in every seventeen 
years when we have the chance to study 
these fascinating insects in the field. 
Clearly, these are not the most favorable 
conditions for field investigations. Yet 
there were several problems dealing with 
cicada biology that we wished to investigate 
and the 1956 cicada emergence gave us one 
of our infrequent opportunities to do so. 
We could only try to fit our studies into the 
rapid tempo of the cicada drama and hope 
to obtain some useful data before the cur- 
tain went down for another seventeen years. 

One area of our studies, which we can 
only mention briefly here, was the song of 
the cicadas. It appears that there are two 
different forms of the Periodical Cicada, one 
large and the other dwarf, which differ in 
song as well as in some other respects. The 
chorus of the large form is a low pleasing 
trill, like that of toads in the distance, while 
that of the dwarf form is loud and shrill. 
When large numbers of the dwarf form are 
singing together, the sound can be over- 
whelming. Why there are two forms of 
cicadas living side by side and what their 
relation is to each other is a puzzling 
problem. But the two different songs 
clearly merited investigation and we spent 
some interesting days in the field making 
sound recordings of individual and group 
songs for a later detailed analysis in the 
laboratory. 

Another problem that we were most in- 
terested in studying was that of numbers. 
Enormous numbers of individuals are 
a characteristic feature of the appearance 
of Periodical Cicadas in an area, but there 
is no really good information on their num- 
bers. D. D wight Davis, Curator of Verte- 
brate Anatomy at the Museum, and I felt 



Page k 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



August, 1956 



that a more accurate knowledge of cicada 
numbers under different conditions would 
permit us to refine our knowledge of these 




RECORDING CICADA SONGS 

Henry S. Dybas (right) is holding the microphone near a singing male cicada 

while D. Dwight Davis, Curator of Vertebrate Anatomy (with earphones), is 

monitoring and regulating the controls. 



insects in many significant aspects. We 
hoped also that a study of this kind would 
have some broader applications and im- 
plications as well. Techniques for arriving 
at reliable estimates of numbers of particu- 
lar animals are a basic tool for studying 
many theoretical aspects of biology as well 
as many practical problems in fields such as 
economic entomology and game manage- 
ment. 

A CENSUS OP CICADAS 

Periodical Cicadas lend themselves to 
census procedures. The nymph is a large 
insect that makes a conspicuous and dis- 
tinctive emergence hole in the ground. The 
walls of the hole are so solidly compacted by 
these little masons that they remain intact 
through rains and other vicissitudes long 
after the insect has left the burrow. More- 
over, the holes occur in sufficient numbers 
in woodlands with moderate cicada densities 
to make a count practical. Finally, emer- 
gence burrows are prepared long before the 
insects emerge and can be uncovered just 
beneath the surface of the soil. This is 
important because it permits a valid count 
to be made over an extended period of 
time. All of these features make it in- 
evitable that any census of Periodical Ci- 
cadas should use the number of nymph 
burrows as an index to the number of adults 
rather than of some other stage. 



We were able to test the assumption that 
the number of burrows corresponds to the 
number of cicadas by setting a screened 
cage on the ground 
to capture emerging 
cicadas in the forest 
where we conducted 
our studies. Our cage 
covered a half of 
a square yard of forest 
floor. In this area we 
located 66 burrows. 
We found that from 
these 66 holes a total 
of 62 cicada adults 
had emerged success- 
fully and another had 
emerged partly but 
died in its nymphal 
skin. Two nymphs 
failed to emerge at all 
and were still in the 
tops of their burrows, 
covered with a white 
fungus. Thus we were 
able to account for 65 
out of 66 holes, a cor- 
respondence so close 
that it more than 
satisfied us with the 
reliability of the index. 
The final step was 
to decide on the sam- 
pling procedure to use 
in the woodland plot 
that we selected for 
our study area. Davis and I discussed this 
problem with members of our staff and the 
Department of Zoology at the University of 
Chicago and arrived 
at a sampling method 
that was designed to 
eliminate conscious or 
unconscious bias in 
the selection of the 
squares to be counted. 
The designated 
squares were selected 
on a map by a mathe- 
matical random-num- 
ber technique and the 
corresponding square 
yards were then lo- 
cated in the woods. 

All of this is a plain 
straightforward meth- 
od — on paper. In- 
evitably a field investi- 
gation runs into things 
that are of little or 
no theoretical inter- 
est but may be highly 
pertinent to the in- 
vestigator — factors 
such as mosquitoes, 

nettles, rain, brambles, and poison ivy. 
Moreover, picking a square on a map in an 
office is one thing, but transferring this 
point to one in a dense woods is something 



quite different. We were fortunate in get- 
ting much volunteer help from the Depart- 
ment of Geology at the Museum on the 
essential steps of mapping the area and 
locating the random squares in the woods. 

Our study area was a representative 
woodland about 58 acres in extent, south 
of Chicago. It contains an intermittent 
creek that flows through a low flat woods 
subject to annual flooding. We decided that 
the upland forest and the low floodplain 
forest should be sampled separately be- 
cause of the obvious difference in these two 
areas. Our early assumption was that con- 
ditions in the annually flooded area would 
be less favorable to soil-inhabiting insects 
like cicada nymphs. We began to find out 
very soon that this was far from being the 
case. Cicada nymphs not only survived the 
annual flooding somehow, but they did so 
in spectacular numbers. 

MILLION AND A HALF TO AN ACRE 

When we finished our counts of both the 
upland area and the low area, we had some 
most interesting figures. The counts of 
burrows in the random samples in the 
upland forest ranged from a low of 2 per 
square yard to a high of 92 and averaged 
about 27 per square yard. This is equiva- 
lent to about 130,000 cicadas per acre. The 
low floodplain forest samples, on the other 
hand, were very conspicuously different. 
The counts ranged from a low of 106 to 
a high of 698 per square yard and averaged 
about 297 per square yard — more than ten 
times the density of the upland area, or 
nearly a million and a half cicadas per acre! 
At this rate, an average city block in Chicago 




SPOT CENSUS 

A square yard of forest floor marked off and partly cleared for counting the 

emergence holes of the cicadas to estimate the population. 



would contain more than 4,000,000 cicadas! 
Impressive as these numbers are, we did 
not fully appreciate the biological produc- 
(Continued on page 7, column 2) 



August, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



'DINOSAUR OF PLANTS' 
SHOWN IN MURAL 

By LYMAN B. SMITH* 

THE LATEST MURAL prepared for 
Martin A. and Carrie Ryerson Hall 
(Hall 29— Plant Life), by Museum Staff 
Artist E. John Pfiffner, shows the giant 
bromeliad Puya raimondii in its home high 
in the Bolivian Andes. This member of the 
pineapple family bears slight resemblance 
to a pineapple plant beyond its coarse spiny 
leaves, and it is very difficult to believe that 
it is also related to the Spanish moss. 

However, Puya raimondii is a sort of 
dinosaur among plants, its thirty-foot 
members fighting a losing battle against 
extinction while more adaptable bromeliads 
are conquering new territory. Its three 
remaining areas, two in Peru and one in 
Bolivia, are now widely separated but in- 
dicate a once continuous range of a thousand 
miles. Incredible as it may seem, this 
highly conspicuous species was unknown 
except to a few Indians until the Peruvian 
botanist, Raimondi, discovered it in 1867. 
Only a handful of people have seen it since 
then, and the first color-photographs of it 
were taken as recently as 1948 by Mulford 
Foster. His pictures, published in the 
October, 1950, number of The National 
Geographic Magazine, have been the inspira- 
tion of the new mural. 

It is easy to understand the perilous 
situation of Puya raimondii when we con- 
sider its life history. The span of a genera- 
tion from seed to flowering has been esti- 
mated at 150 years, which certainly is an 
extremely long time for a plant that must 
be classified as an herb and that dies after 
a single flowering. This has been balanced 
by the plant's ability to withstand the cold 
and aridity of the mountain tops and its 
astronomical production of seed, some six 
and a half million each. However, it has 
earned the enmity of Indian herders by 
entangling their sheep with its spiny leaves 
and thus has sealed its doom unless prompt 
measures for protection are taken. 

The above notes are largely drawn from 
Professor Hans Kinzl's excellent article 
"Die Puya Raimondii — ein Wahrzeichen der 
tropischen Anden" in Jahrbuch des Oester- 
reichischen Alpenvereins, Volume 74, No. 5, 
pp. 59-66, 1949. 



* Dr. Smith is Associate Curator in the Division of 
Phanerogams at the United States National Museum, 
Washington, D.C. 



Expedition to Wyoming 

Seeks Eocene Fossils 

An expedition to collect a broad faunal 
representation of fossils of the Eocene epoch 
(40 to 60 million years ago) will be dis- 
patched by the Museum to the Washakie 
Basin in Wyoming about August 1. The 
expedition will be conducted by William D. 



Turnbull, Assistant Curator of Fossil Mam- 
mals, and Orville L. Gilpin, Chief Preparator 
of Fossils. 

The area selected for reconnaissance and 
excavations appears promising from the in- 
dications obtained by preliminary investi- 
gation in other years. It is situated at an 
elevation of about 6,500 to 7,500 feet in the 
Rockies, north of the Colorado border, south 
and east of the Grand Tetons. 

The Eocene is at present inadequately 
represented in the Museum's paleontological 
collections, and it is hoped that several 
months' work by the 1956 expedition will 
remedy this situation. The collecting of 
fossil mammals will be a primary objective, 
but it is expected that specimens of reptiles 
will also be obtained. The Eocene was the 
age of the "dawn horse" Eohippus, a crea- 
ture about the size of a collie dog, that had 
five toes on each foot instead of the hoofed 
and single-toed foot of its larger descendants. 



'HOW ABOUT THIS ONE' 




Judy Wilhite of Des Moines, Iowa, and 
her cousins Vicki and Jeannean of Montrose, 
Pennsylvania, puzzle over the identification 
of a stamp selected by Tim Wilhite, also of 
Montrose, as the youngsters begin a "Post- 
age-Stamp Safari" through the Museum. 
Sixth in a series of Museum Journeys given 
over the past 15 months, the safari may be 
taken at any time until August 31. Young- 
sters wishing to participate in the safari are 
presented with questionnaires asking for 
identification, in the Museum, of animals 
imprinted on stamps from all parts of the 
world. Four successful Journeys entitle the 
youngster to an award designating him as an 
official Museum Traveler; eight successful 
Journeys qualify him as a Museum Adven- 
turer. Boys and girls may take their post- 
age-stamp safari at any time of the day 
during Museum hours (9 a.m. to 6 p.m.). 



EXPLORATION BY CANOE 
ON BORNEO RIVERS 

DR. ROBERT F. INGER, Curator of 
Amphibians and Reptiles, who is con- 
ducting the Borneo Zoological Expedition, 
has moved his camp down to extreme south- 
eastern North Borneo and is encamped on 
a river called the Kalabakan, according to 
his latest report (dated June 14). 

The day before writing he spent eleven 
hours in a native dugout — a prau it is 
called locally — exploring the river. With 
two Dusuns and his Dyak hunter Guan, 
he went upstream by daylight, prospecting 
for collecting sites for fishes and frogs. 
Fishing on a big river is difficult, but the 
big rivers may have special species in them. 
Using a cast net, Inger caught a number of 
species new to him that evidently live only 
in large rivers, for he hadn't found them 
in the smaller streams he had fished so far. 

Moving silently in a prau along the Kala- 
bakan River at dusk is a wonderful ex- 
perience, Inger writes. Mammals and birds 
are conspicuous and active. Red monkeys, 
long-tailed monkeys, and gibbons stare at 
you from the trees along the shoreline. 
The gibbons, he says, are the finest mammals 
in Borneo with their graceful leaps — swings, 
rather — for incredible distances through the 
trees; and no forest sound can compare with 
their wonderful yodeling. At dark, fruit 
bats, the so-called flying foxes, circle over 
the trees by the dozens, and after dark their 
incessant quarreling screams and barks come 
from the treetops. 

When traveling by prau the almost in- 
cessant chatter of the Dusuns is trouble- 
some and Inger continually has to remind 
them that the only sounds he wants to hear 
are frog sounds. But one night they were 
as silent as possible, for there were said to be 
pigs on the banks, and sure enough Guan 
shot not only a pig, but also a mouse deer. 

The new camp is near the coast, and the 
abundant tree frogs Inger finds are not the 
same species that he found at last month's 
camp in the interior on the Kinabatangan 
River but are more like those he found at 
other coastal localities; and similar ecological 
data is accumulating on other groups. So 
far Inger has collected 28 species of frogs. 
He had hoped to get half the species known 
for Borneo, but to do this he must get 12 
more, and he writes it's harder and harder 
to get species new for the collection. 

The Bombay-Burmah Company, Inger's 
host for two months of his earlier 1950 ex- 
pedition, also has the timber concession for 
the entire river basin in which he is working 
now. The company's personnel is doing 
everything they can to help him. To his 
thanks the manager replied that the more 
that was known about Borneo, the better 
off the Bombay-Burmah Company would 
be. Such hospitality and farsighted ap- 
preciation of a naturalists' labors is rare 
enough to be heartwarming. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



August, 1956 



EVERYTHING FROM 'HOPPERS TO HIPPOS IN MUSEUM GIFTS 



By JANE ROCKWELL 

TEN GRASSHOPPERS, 2 human skele- 
tons, 1 alligator, 19 slides of fleas, 
10 pounds of raw uranium ore, 29 seed 
samples . . . 

The above isn't a list of items for a playful 
scavenger hunt — it's only a partial enumer- 
ation of typical gifts received and recorded 
at the Museum each month. Most people, 
we imagine, would be rather hesitant to 
look upon these items as "gifts," but to the 
Museum they are welcome acquisitions, 
eagerly anticipated and gratefully received. 
Bizarre as they may seem to the layman, to 
Museum staff members who deal constantly 
in study and research with thousands of 
similar articles every year, they are quite 
commonplace. However, in the long gift- 
receiving history of the Museum there have 
been many gifts that have, for one reason 
or another, stood apart from the usual 
acquisitions. 

One such gift was an elephant seal whose 
arrival in 1929 was made all too evident 
by the fact that it was in an advanced state 
of decay. The seal, which had been shipped 
to St. Louis by a dealer in circus and zoo 



was jubilant at the arrival, seven years ago, 
of a specimen of the dawn redwood, taken 
from the "discovery" tree found in Szech- 
wan province in southeastern China. The 
tree, still the largest of this species known 
to exist, is 98 feet high and is 68 inches in 
diameter. Collected at the close of World 
War II, the herbarium specimen was sent 
to the Museum by the Arnold Arboretum 
of Harvard University and the wood sample 
was sent by a private collector. Botanists 
also rejoiced at the arrival of a massive 
board of the wood of the Norfolk Pine, 
which is native only to Norfolk Island, 
located off the coast of Australia. 

ZOO CELEBRITIES 

One of the most popular Museum exhibits 
is Bushman, the famed gorilla who was sent 
to the Museum from Lincoln Park Zoo after 
his death in 1951. Born in 1928, Bushman 
in his prime attained a height of 6 feet 
2 inches and a weight of approximately 550 
pounds. A few steps from Bushman in 
Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall (Hall 22) 
is another former zoo celebrity — a hippo- 
potamus who basked in the admiration of 



was unknown during the animal's life, but 
it happens that in quite a few animals the 
reproductive organs are not evident. 

Harwa, the hero of our "See a Mummy 
X-Rayed" exhibit which few people fail to 
inspect while at the Museum, was himself 
a gift, and the fluoroscopic apparatus that 
has insured his popularity with the public 
is another gift. Harwa remained for years 
in almost total obscurity in Museum store- 
rooms while more glamorous mummies were 
exhibited in the Hall of Egypt (Hall J). 
Finally the General Electric X-Ray Cor- 
poration of Chicago arranged to build an 
X-ray apparatus for him so that he could be 
exhibited at the New York World's Fair 
(1939-40). After the fair the General 
Electric Company gave the mechanical 
equipment to the Museum and Harwa was 
housed in a special chamber in the Hall of 
Egyptian Archaeology where he became the 
only man living or dead who is X-rayed 
publicly every day. Visitors entering 
Harwa's home see him first in his mummy 
wrappings and then a flip of a switch 
enables them to see his ancient skeleton 
projected before them. 




ZOO PERSONALITY PERPETUATED 
A great iavorite with children and adults alike at the Cincinnati Zoo, this outstanding hippo came to an 
untimely death when a small boy threw a rubber ball into his mouth. He is now immortalized in the Museum. 



animals, died while en route, after which 
it was sent to this Museum. Upon unpack- 
ing the crate containing the carcass, our 
taxidermists discovered that the dead 
animal had not been packed with sufficient 
ice. An unbearable stench permeated the 
entire Museum while frantic efforts were 
successfully made to salvage the skeleton. 
The herculean task of disposing of the re- 
mainder of the beast was solved by cre- 
mation in the Museum incinerator. Memo- 
ries of that unwelcome gift are likely to 
remain vivid to staff members for a long 
time. 

Few gifts are received so unenthusiasti- 
cally, however. The Department of Botany 



visitors to the Cincinnati Zoo until a small 
boy brought about the hippo's death by 
throwing a ball into his mouth. Unusually 
large and well-proportioned, the hippo's own 
skin was used for a mold by Museum taxider- 
mists. A close second to Bushman in popu- 
larity is Su-lin, a giant panda in nearby 
Hall 15 (Mammals in Systematic Arrange- 
ment). At his death in 1938 Su-lin came to 
the Museum from Brookfield Zoo, where 
he had led a highly publicized existence. 
While the animal's body was under study 
at the Museum preparatory to mounting, 
it was discovered that Su-lin was a male 
and not a female as had been supposed. 
Offhand it may seem strange that this fact 




PUSHBUTTON MUMMY 
Harwa, the most X-rayed man. living or dead, in all 
history. First you see him in his mummy wrappings 
(as at left), and then only "in his skeleton" on the 
fluoroscopic screen in a special chamber in the Hall 
of Egypt (Hall J). 

Two Museum acquisitions have an es- 
pecially grim history behind them. They 
are the Man-eaters of Tsavo, two lions so- 
called because they killed and ate 135 
workers and injured many others who were 



August, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



building the Uganda Railway in East Africa 
in 1898. The infamous lions were finally 
killed by Colonel J.H. Patterson, who sold 
the skins in 1924 to President Stanley Field 
of the Museum, after which President Field 
gave the skins to the Museum. The lions 
now can be seen in Hall 22 (Carl E. Akeley 
Memorial Hall). 

Two gifts that have excited comment 
because of their respective size and quantity 
are recent arrivals. One, a 65-foot skeleton 
of a California fin-back whale (described 
in the February, 1956, Bulletin), was 
received from the Wistar Institute of Phila- 
delphia. The huge skeleton, now stored in 
the Museum's Division of Taxidermy, is 
15 feet longer than the right-whale skeleton 
it will replace in Hall 19 (Skeletons of 
Vertebrate Animals). The second gift, 
purchased by the Board of Trustees from the 
American Museum of Natural History in 
New York and given to the Museum, 
probably has occasioned more public interest 
than any other single gift in the Museum's 
history. It is the impressive skeleton of 
Gorgosaurus, a 75,000,000-year-old carniv- 
orous dinosaur now permanently quartered 
in Stanley Field Hall with its prey Lambeo- 
saurus, a plant-eating dinosaur. Dramati- 
cally shown in a life-like drama which might 
have occurred while the two giant reptiles 
were roaming Alberta, Canada, the two 
dinosaurs already are great favorites of Mu- 
seum visitors. 

COMPLICATED BIRD 

The gift of a Congo peacock, a rare 
African peacock identified only as recently 
as 1936, had its complications. The bird 
was discovered to have come from the 
Belgian Congo when Dr. J. P. Chapin of the 
American Museum of Natural History saw 
two mounted pheasants in the Congo Mu- 
seum near Brussels that were identified only 
as two peacocks. Dr. Chapin recalled 
a pheasant feather that he had found in the 
Belgian Congo during an expedition in 1913 
and had kept in his possession although he 
was unable to identify it. The feather 
matched those of the two birds mounted 
in the Congo Museum and Dr. Chapin was 
able to establish that the birds were of 
a new genus and species from the Belgian 
Congo. In 1949 Dr. Charles Cordier col- 
lected for the New York Zoological Society 
several Congo peacocks that were sent to 
the Bronx Zoo. One, a male, died a natural 
death at the zoo, and was dispatched to this 
Museum by parcel post as a gift from the 
New York Zoological Society. It arrived 
in Chicago, but somehow through a postal 
mixup it was sent back to New York. Then 
a period of memos, telegrams, and letters 
followed until the peacock was finally located 
and sent to this Museum. The long delay 
in the mail did not aggravate the bird's 
decomposition to any significant degree, and 
the splendid specimen now occupies a place 
in the Museum's research collections. But 



the Congo peacock underwent quite a strug- 
gle before it took its rightful place in natural 
science and in this Museum. 

These gifts are only a few of the many 
that have attracted both scientific and pub- 
lic fame, but it must be remembered that 
they form only an infinitesimal part of the 
thousands of gifts that annually pour into 
the Museum from all parts of the world. 
The majority of these thousands of gifts 
come from laymen whose interest in natural 
history prompts them to devote time, 
money, and effort to collecting specimens 
for the Museum. Many Museum gifts also 
come from other institutions, and many 
come from our own staff members. Without 
the interest of these donors whose services 
are of invaluable aid to the introduction, 
maintenance, and improvement of Museum 
exhibits and research collections, the Mu- 
seum's functioning would be greatly im- 
paired. 



CICADAS- 

(Continued from page 4) 

tivity of our woodland in terms of cicadas 
alone until we had calculated the weight of 
the cicadas being produced. As insects go, 
cicadas are relatively large. The average 
live weight of a full-grown nymph, based on 
a sample of more than a hundred nymphs 
from the floodplain forest, was .73 grams. 
This gave us a total of 1,046,408 grams of 
cicadas per acre (2,306.9 pounds) — or more 
than a ton of cicadas per acre. 

Comparable figures on other animals are 
very difficult to obtain. It is interesting to 
note, however, that one study on the 
raising of beef cattle on managed pasture in 
the eastern United States cites an annual 
beef production of 145 pounds and 195 
pounds per acre depending on the degree of 
grazing of the pasture. Our figure of 2,307 
pounds of cicadas is a total for seventeen 
years of growth. An annual average would 
be 136 pounds per acre--a figure that is in 
the general range of that for beef production 
in the study referred to. But we should not 
stretch the comparison too far. The whole 
field of study of biological productivity and 
the relative biological efficiency of different 
kinds of habitats is in its earliest beginnings, 
and it is clear that we are dealing with a very 
difficult kind of problem. 

These, then, are some of the things that 
we learned about Periodical Cicadas during 
their recent emergence in our area. Seven- 
teen years from now we may be able to 
contribute a few more facts to our knowl- 
edge of these distinguished insects. 



TWO MORE FREE MOVIES 
FOR CHILDREN 

The last two free programs of motion 
pictures in the summer series for children 
will be given on the first two Thursday 
mornings in August. There will be two 
showings of each, the first beginning at 
10 a.m. On August 2 the second showing 
will begin at 11 a.m.; on August 9, because 
of an extra-long film, the second showing 
will be about 11:30 a.m. The programs are 
presented in the James Simpson Theatre 
under the auspices of the James Nelson and 
Anna Louise Raymond Foundation. No 
tickets are required. Children may come 
alone, accompanied by parents or other 
adults, or in organized groups. Following 
are the programs: 

August 2 — Nature's Children (repeated 
by request) 
Also a cartoon 

August 9 — Elephant Boy (repeated by 
request) 
Based on Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Book 
story of "Toomai of the Elephants" in 
India 



STAFF NOTES 



Fossil Flower Reconstructed 

Added to the exhibits in Martin A. and 
Carrie Ryerson Hall (Hall 29, Plant Life) 
is a reconstruction of a fossil cycadeoid 
"flower" that grew about 100 million years 
ago in South Dakota. 



George I. Quimby, Curator of North 
American Archaeology and Ethnology, par- 
ticipated last month in a two-week archae- 
ological survey of the east shore of Lake 
Superior. The survey was a co-operative 
undertaking of the University of Michigan 
and this Museum .... Miss Elaine Bluhtn, 
Assistant in Archaeology, recently spoke on 
"Digging in the Chicago Area" before the 
Barrington Natural History Society .... 
Mrs. Marion Grey, Associate in the Divi- 
sion of Fishes, recently studied deep-sea 
fishes at the California Academy of Sciences 
in San Francisco and the Natural History 
Museum of Stanford University .... Loren 
P. Woods, Curator of Fishes, was elected 
vice-president in charge of conservation at 
the recent meeting of the American Society 
of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists at 
Higgins Lake, Michigan. Dr. Edward M. 
Nelson, Associate in the Division of Fishes, 
who presented two papers, and Robert 
Hass, volunteer worker, were delegates 
.... Luis de la Torre, Associate in the 
Division of Mammals, has been elected 
a member of the University of Illinois 
chapter of Sigma Xi, honor society in 
science .... Dr. Rainer Zangerl, Curator 
of Fossil Reptiles, and Dr. Eugene S. 
Richardson, Jr., Curator of Fossil Inverte- 
brates, are engaged in field work along the 
Gulf Coast of Louisiana .... Bryan Pat- 
terson, former Curator of Fossil Mammals 
and a Museum Research Associate since he 
accepted a professorship at Harvard Uni- 
versity, is spending several months in re- 
search in the paleontology laboratories here. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



August, 1956 



RAIN-PLAGUED TRIBE 
BLAMES EXPLORERS 

Dr. D. S. Rabor, leader of the 1956 
Zoological Expedition in the Philippines, 
reports a successful completion of the year's 
work. During Dr. Rabor's vacation from 
teaching in Silliman University he led 
a party of assistants and student helpers to 
Mt. Malindang in Zamboanga, which had 
been visited by a zoological collector only 
once before, nearly fifty years ago. 

It is an isolated mountain in far western 
Mindanao, rising to about 8,000 feet above 
sea level and with a beautiful forest on its 
upper slopes. Dr. Rabor's party estab- 
lished camp well up on the mountain and 
was able to collect to its summit. 

The season was especially rainy; Rabor 
and his associates had only four sunny days 
during their two months on the mountain. 
The pagan people of the mountains, the 
Subaflos, were not able to burn their clear- 
ings to prepare them for rice planting be- 
cause of the wet weather. These super- 
stitious people blamed this on the Museum 
collecting party's presence in the mountains. 
Later, when there is no crop and starvation 
threatens them, they will again blame the 
Museum's party. Such are the ramifications 
of our activities. Yet all the time lumber 
companies are eating away at this isolated 
forest. When Dr. Rabor and Dr. Austin L. 
Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology, visited the 
area two years ago on a reconnaissance, 
high-line logging was taking the trees out 
of the rough mountain valleys. In time 
only a remnant of battered tree-growth will 
be left. Thus, a collecting trip now, to 
record what animal life is there, is timely. 

Dr. Rabor sent to the Museum an im- 
posing list of rare and unusual birds he has 
secured. There are two monkey-eating 
eagles, series of fairy bluebirds, tailor birds, 
and sunbirds. Many of the interesting 
mountain species have never been found in 
this part of the Philippines, such as the 
brush-tongued lorries and the red-capped 
flowerpecker. Several of them will almost 
surely be new to science. 



Books 



Expedition to Bahamas 

Dr. Fritz Haas, Curator of Lower Inverte- 
brates, left on July 7 for Bimini, Bahamas, 
where, as a guest of the American Museum 
of Natural History, in its Marine Laboratory 
on Bimini, he will continue his studies on 
coral reefs in the Caribbean. On his way, 
he made brief stopovers both in Washington, 
D.C., and in Miami, Fla., where he visited 
his colleagues in museums and in marine 
biological laboratories. He is expected to 
return in August. 



Specimens illustrating contrasting color 
phases of red and arctic foxes are displayed 
in Hall 15. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY OF NORTH 
AMERICAN AMPHIBIANS AND 
REPTILES. By James A. Oliver. D. 
Van Nostrand Company, Princeton, New 
Jersey, 359 pages, 72 figures, 12 plates. 
$6.95. 

Curators in the Department of Zoology 
receive many telephone calls and letters 
from the general public asking for infor- 
mation on this or that animal. Some 
questions are easy to answer. Either the 
answer is in our minds or it can be found 
quickly in one of the reference books we 
keep on our desks close to the telephone. On 
the other hand, certain kinds of questions 
take hours to answer. To tell someone how 
fast a blacksnake can travel or how long the 
American chameleon lives may require sev- 
eral hours of searching through the technical 
literature. 

But now, thanks to The Natural History 
of North American Amphibians and Reptiles 
by James A. Oliver, all that is known about 
these animals has been summarized in 
a well-written and interesting book. Start- 
ing with a chapter on folklore, in which 
Dr. Oliver recalls Tom Sawyer's remedy for 
warts supposedly caused by toads, "Barley- 
corn, barley-corn, Injun-meal shorts, Spunk 
water, spunk water, swaller these warts," 
the book takes up the economic value, 
occurrence, locomotion, activities, food and 
feeding, reproduction, and growth and 
longevity of our reptiles and amphibians. 
An additional section dealing with classifi- 
cation has a brief but effective survey of the 
families of North American turtles, snakes, 
lizards, frogs and toads, and salamanders. 
The final section discusses reptiles and 
amphibians as pets. 

The book is well supplied with drawings 
and photographs that facilitate understand- 
ing of the habits or activities that Dr. Oliver 
describes in words. The drawings illustrat- 
ing the peculiar locomotion of the side- 
winder rattlesnake are the best of this 
category in my opinion. The photograph 
of a tree frog perched on a branch and 
stuffing a grasshopper half his own size 
down his throat with one hand is tops in 
its class. Equally remarkable, the photo- 
graph of the "combat dance" of two male 
red diamond rattlesnakes is unmatched for 
showing one of the little-known and poorly 
understood habits of animals. 

Dr. Oliver, who is Curator of Reptiles 
at the New York Zoological Society, has 
written a book that fits as easily into the 
library of a professional herpetologist as into 
the library of a high-school boy who keeps 
live snakes or into that of an adult who has 
a general interest in the out-of-doors. 

Robert F. Inger 
Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles 



2 LECTURE-TOURS A DAY 
OFFERED IN AUGUST 

During August, guide-lecture tours of 
Museum exhibits will be offered in both the 
mornings and the afternoons of weekdays, 
Mondays through Fridays. Although there 
will be no tours on Saturdays and Sundays, 
the Museum will be open during regular 
visiting hours, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. on those days. 

Except on Thursdays, the morning tours 
will be devoted to the exhibits in one de- 
partment of the Museum. All afternoon 
tours (and also the tours on Thursday 
mornings) will be comprehensive in scope, 
including outstanding exhibits in all depart- 
ments. Tours are conducted by lecturers 
of the Raymond Foundation staff. Follow- 
ing is the schedule: 

Mondays: 11 a.m. — Records from the Rocks 
2 p.m. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Tuesdays: 11 A.M. — Animals Around the 
World 
2 P.M.— Highlights of the Exhibits 

Wednesdays: 11 A.M. — People and Places 
2 p.m. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Thursdays: 11 a.m. and 2 P.M. — Highlights 
of the Exhibits 

Fridays: 11 A.M.— The World of Plants 
2 p.m.— Highlights of the Exhibits 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of principal gifts re- 
ceived during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology: 

From: Miss Elizabeth M. Goodland, 
Chicago — 2 baskets, Philippines; E. D. 
Hester, Jeffersonville, Ind. — Oriental ce- 
ramics, Philippines; Robert Trier, Chicago 
— 3 fire pistons, Malay Peninsula; Wenner- 
Gren Foundation for Anthropological Re- 
search, New York — a dictation wire re- 
corder 

Department of Botany; 

From: Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Urbana, 111. — 3 hybrid seed-corn samples; 
Dr. Leandro Aristiguieta, Caracas, Vene- 
zuela — a Rhynchospora aristata; Dr. Jose 
Cuatrecasas, Washington, D. C. — 14 plants, 
Colombia; Department of Tourists and 
Publicity, Wellington, New Zealand— 22 
photographs of New Zealand flax industry 

Department of Geology: 

From: Henry Horback, Chicago — 2 speci- 
mens of marcasite nodules; Dr. Ernest 
Lundelius, Pasadena, Calif. — collection of 
fossil mammals, western Australia; David 
Techter, Chicago — a fossil spider; Trans- 
vaal Museum, Transvaal, South Africa — 
15 casts of fossil hominoids 

Department of Zoology: 

From: Bernard Benesh, Burrville, Tenn. 
— 11 wasps, 10 beetles, Tennessee and Chile; 
Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, 111. 
— a mammal head, North America; Mrs. 
Emmett Reid Dunn, Bryn Mawr, Pa. — 
458 reptiles and amphibians 



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Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



September, 1956 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery Hughston M. McBain 

Wm. McCormick Blair William H. Mitchell 

Walther Buchen John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Walter J. Cummings Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

Samuel Insull, Jr. John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Hughston M. McBain Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar . . r Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy C*te/ Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Jane Rockwell 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



Schooldays Are Here . . . 

A SCIENTIST ADMONISHES 
TEACHERS AND PUPILS 

By AUSTIN L. RAND 

CHIEF CURATOR OF ZOOLOGY 

IN THE COMMUNITY outside Chicago 
where I live, my wife and I are called on 
often each year by pupils of the local schools 
to advise and help in biology projects. 
Mrs. Rand keeps a few books handy to lend 
to children for this purpose, and within the 
year I've lent a dog skull from the miscel- 
laneous collection in our garage, helped 
trace out the hearing apparatus in a freshly 
butchered cow's head, and suggested an 
arrangement for making a heterogeneous 
assortment of bones into a science display. 
This is, of course, unofficial aid. 

Chicago Natural History Museum also 
takes an official interest in Science Fairs. 
In the spring of 1955 it exhibited projects 
undertaken by upper elementary and high- 
school students sponsored by the Chicago 
Teachers Science Association. These were 
shown in Stanley Field Hall, central hall of 
the Museum, between the main entrance and 
the elephants that so dominate the hall 
they are practically a trade mark of the 
Museum. This year, on May 12, the entire 
Science Fair was held at the Museum 
instead of being split, as in the past, among 
several institutions, by age and grade 



groups and on several different dates. I've 
pointed out these activities of ours to show 
that both officially and unofficially we help 
and encourage science fairs and school proj- 
ects, at two widely different levels. 

SOME REQUESTS UNREASONABLE 

However much we believe in helping and 
encouraging school science-projects, we get 
some types of requests of which we dis- 
approve. The following is an example, 
quoted in its entirety: 

Dear Gentlemen 

I would like to request all the information 
you can give me on animals. Information 
on the classification of animals such as fish, 
reptiles, and so on will be appreciated. I 
would like this information for a ninth- 
grade science project. Please include some 
picture if possible. Also some on prehistoric 
animals. Thank you. 

Sincerely 

Three other similar letters came to my 
desk, all the same day in January, the be- 
ginning of the "science-project season." 
They contain such requests as: "I am 
working on a science project concerning 
.... bird feathers .... would like pictures 
.... to use in my project . . . ." 

"I go to ... . school [this one in Chicago] 
and in science I have to make a notebook 
on ... . birds that stay all year round in 
Illinois .... give me a list .... and any 
information that you have on them .... 
must have this information by the 15th of 
of this month .... if you have any feathers 
please may I have some." 

". . . . I am .... a sophomore .... par- 
ticipating in a biology contest .... I wish 
to inquire whether you have any information 
and specimens on the butterflies of Illinois. 



If so, will you kindly mail them to me. I am 
willing to absorb mailing costs, and any 
other expenses." 

Letters received on other days asked for 
bird feathers or all about parakeets. 

WOULD NULLIFY PROJECT'S VALUE 

They are polite, well-written letters. But 
compliance by us would nullify the object 
of the science project, which is to teach 
something about science, where to find ma- 
terial, and where to get information at 
a level the students can understand. 

These letters are not from children inter- 
ested in science, craving information. They 
are from children interested in a short cut 
to a project. Just suppose they were to 
write to an English or a history professor 
saying they were doing a project in one of 
those subjects and would the professor 
please send them a few suitable themes 
including one on spring and another on 
culture, or an outline of the American 
revolution, with a few maps and pictures, 
and if they have them a few pieces of armor, 
of course offering to pay mailing and other 
expenses. 

A point these letters have in common is 
that they all seem to be teacher-inspired. 
They all ask help with school work — not 
collateral material, but the project itself. 

Science projects have as their aim, the 
education of pupils. In any school with 
biology projects there is obviously a biology 
teacher and an abundance of material near 
at hand. And for information, as some of 
my correspondents seem to forget, there is 
the dictionary, the encyclopedia, the biology 
texts that any school teaching biology must 
surely have, and there is often a local 
library. For ideas there are the science and 
the nature journals, which contain ad- 
(Continued on page 7, column 1) 



THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



Buy your mushrooms — don't gather them! 

This is the advice of the scientists in the Museum's Department of Botany. The 
principal season when mushrooms are gathered by enthusiastic epicures is at hand, 
and many courageous souls with confidence in their own ability to distinguish between 
edible and poisonous varieties will be out seeking delicacies for their dining tables. 

Mushrooms and related fungi appear in many shapes and colors besides those 
most familiar to gourmets. Many varieties, some edible, some poisonous, are shown 
in a special exhibit of large hand-colored photographs to be on view in Stanley Field 
Hall from September 1 until October 1. The Museum exhibit is not intended to be 
used as a guide in distinguishing between safe and dangerous kinds of mushrooms, 
however. Because of the dangers of a mistake even by many who think they are 
experts, Museum botanists distinctly warn against the practice of gathering wild 
mushrooms for food by laymen (when they want mushrooms, the botanists themselves 
buy them in grocery stores, which obtain them from commercial cultivators). 

The 48 photographs on exhibition are the work of Herbert T. Tweedie, a retired 
portrait-photographer of Dayton, Ohio. 



September, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page S 



MEMBERS' NIGHT WILL SPOTLIGHT AFRICA AND OCEANIA 



MEMBERS' NIGHT this year will be 
on Friday, October 12. 

A feature of the evening will be the un- 
veiling of an elaborate new exhibit — the 
home of an African tribal king. Occupying 
some 450 square feet in Hall E on the 
Ground Floor, this is a full-size reproduction 
of the royal dwelling-place of a chieftain 
who ruled over several thousand subjects 
in the Cameroons region of West Africa in 
the early part of this century. The exhibit 
is a faithful replica, although to meet the 
practical requirements of the Museum more 
durable materials are used to simulate those 
of which the original in Africa was built. In 
an actual house the walls would be of mud 
plastered over a framework of latticed bam- 
boo, and the enclosure would be covered by 
a grass-thatched roof. Apart from materials, 
the only architectural licence taken is in 
building into the replica several viewing 
windows in the walls so that Museum visitors 
may look into the interior of the house. 

For some fifty years the Museum has 
possessed one of the finest collections of 
Cameroons artifacts in existence, and the 
king's house provides a setting in which to 
display these in context, showing them as 
they would be used instead of merely in 
rows in glass-fronted exhibition cases. Like 
many of the sovereigns of the royal houses 
of Europe over the centuries, the Cameroons 
kings were the patron? of the arts in their 
own world. The finest furnishings, sculp- 
tures, charms, fetishes, ancestor figures, and 
other creations of their people came to the 
kings as tribute. So the royal residence 
in the Museum has been furnished with more 
than 100 of the best objects in our Camer- 
oons collection, placed just as they would be 
found in the original house, for decorative, 
functional, and ceremonial purposes. 

Entrance to the house is by two doorways 
flanked with strikingly carved tall poles, in 
which a single human figure supports aloft 
a host of other human figures mounted on 
each other's shoulders in much the manner 
of a troupe of acrobats. Figures of animals 
are also carved on these portal posts. 

Among the articles inside the house are 
several crowns, some of colorful beadwork, 
others of carved wood; royal stools equiva- 
lent to thrones; masks of religious and 
magical significance; ceremonial drums; 
flasks of two kinds — some used for wine, 
some for preserving the remains of revered 
ancestors; tobacco-pipes over five feet long; 
spears and other weapons; ancestor figures; 
sleeping mats for the wife of the day, chosen 
from a harem that often numbered eighty 
or more women; and the king's bed. The 
last, a most elaborately carved wooden 
couch presents in symbol a social commen- 
tary on the absoluteness of the king's rule 
— it is supported on the heads of rows of 
carved figures of his subjects. 



Members' Night could also be called 
"South Pacific Night." It will mark the 
reopening of three exhibition halls contain- 
ing completely refurbished and improved 
exhibits of the excitingly colorful primitive 
arts and industries of the various island- 
groups forming Oceania. The halls, all 
adjacent to each other on the Ground Floor, 
are Hall A (Peoples of Melanesia and the 
Philippines) with its adjunct, Hall A-l 
(Aboriginal Peoples of Australia), Hall F 
(Peoples of Polynesia and Micronesia — Cen- 
tral and South Pacific), and Hall G (Peoples 
of the Malay Peninsula and Indonesia). 

The Museum's collections from these 
areas, particularly Melanesia, rank among 
the most complete in number and variety 
and the most superb in quality of any ever 
assembled anywhere in the world. The 
exhibition cases containing this material 
have been rearranged in a new and more 
attractive fashion that highlights the fas- 
cinating imaginative creations of the primi- 
tive artists and craftsmen. 

As usual, Members' Night will include 
an open house for the guests to visit "behind 
the scenes" in the laboratories, studios, 



workshops, and offices of the Museum, 
where they will meet the scientists and 
technicians of the staff and see and hear how 
the work of the institution is carried on. 

At 9:15 P.M. a special program will be 
presented in the James Simpson Theatre. 
Details of this will be announced in the 
October Bulletin. 

Members' Night schedule runs from 7 to 
10:30 p.m. (the doors of the building will be 
open from 6 p.m. to accommodate those who 
wish to dine at the Museum Cafeteria, 
which will serve dinner at its regular prices 
from 6 to 8). 

Extensive free parking space will be 
available to guests at the north of the Mu- 
seum building. Special free motor-bus 
service has been arranged for those who do 
not wish to drive their own cars. A bus 
marked to indicate that it is for Museum 
shuttle-service will leave Jackson Boulevard 
and State Street at 15-minute intervals 
beginning at 6:30 p.m. The last bus will 
leave the Museum at 10:45 p.m. In both 
directions intermediate stops will be made 
at 7th Street and Michigan and at Jackson 
and Michigan. 



'BUFFALO HUNTERS' STALK PREY IN MUSEUM 




Boys and girls from the West Community 
YMCA summer day-camp of Chicago are 
transformed into determined hunters as they 
participate in a Buffalo Hunt given for sum- 
mer day-camps of the YMCA by the Mu- 
seum's Raymond Foundation. Having 
spotted the "herd" in the Hall of American 
Mammals (Hall 16), they listen to instruc- 
tions given by Edith Fleming, Raymond 



Foundation lecturer in charge of the pro- 
gram, before answering written questions 
about buffaloes and continuing on their hunt 
through the Museum's halls. "Training" 
for the hunt begins with two films: one on 
the Sioux Indians and another on Indian 
animal-dances, including a buffalo dance. 
The buffalo hunts, which began July 1, will 
continue throughout this month. 



Page k 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



September, 1956 



THE FOXGLOVE: MEDICINAL 
AND ORNAMENTAL PLANT 

By JOHN W. THIERET 

CURATOR OF ECONOMIC BOTANY 

AN OLD WELSH WOMAN of Shrop- 
shire, using a concoction of herbs she 
had brewed, cured a number of cases of 
dropsy nearly 200 years ago after even the 
most able physicians had failed. Hearing 
of this, Dr. William Withering, a junior 
staff-member in the Birmingham Hospital, 
visited the woman in 1775 and, after much 
persuasion, obtained a handful of her herbs. 
After long analysis, Dr. Withering con- 
cluded that of all the plants represented in 
the mixture, only one — foxglove — was of any 
value. His curiosity about this common 
plant was aroused, and he soon learned that 
in other English and Welsh communities 
foxglove was a major ingredient in medicines 
for dropsy. Then Dr. Withering began 
a long series of experiments, using foxglove 
to treat numerous cases of dropsy with 
apparently great success. 

The medicine soon began to attract the 
attention of other physicians, and its use 
spread. In 1785 Dr. Withering published 
the results of his long research in his classic 
book An Account of the Foxglove, and some 
of its medical Uses; with practical Remarks 
on Dropsy, and other Diseases. Although 
his main concern was with foxglove as 
a remedy for dropsy, Dr. Withering made 
the following prophetic statement concern- 
ing the herb: "It has a power over the 
motion of the heart, to a degree yet un- 
observed in any other medicine, and this 
power may be converted to salutary ends." 
And how right he was, for today foxglove 
is one of the most important drugs in the 
treatment of heart diseases. 

Although the foxglove was introduced 
into modern medicine through the careful 
work of Dr. Withering, it was used to treat 
various ills long before the 18th century, 
though it is not one of the oldest drugs. 
The ancient herbalists such as Theophrastus, 
Dioscorides, and others of the time just 
before and during the beginning of the 
Christian era did not know of the plant. 
The earliest record of its utilization is during 
the 5th century when the Irish used it in 
cases of childbed fever. "Foxes Glofe" is 
mentioned in the Saxon Herbarium, a manu- 
script of a.d. 1000. In the Welsh Meddygon 
Myddfai, a collection of medical recipes 
compiled in the 13th century, foxglove 
found use in the treatment of abdominal 
swellings, abscesses, and headaches. 

CONTENTION OVER EARLY USE 

Between 1600 and the latter part of the 
18th century, foxglove had its ups and 
downs as a medicinal plant. Some writers 
considered it poisonous or too acrid for 
internal use and maintained that it had no 
therapeutic value anyway. Others thought 
it to be "efficacious as any drug the Indies 



produce" and recommended it for a myriad 
of ills, including consumption, scrofula, 
wounds, old sores, running ulcers, epilepsy, 
scabby head, and to "cleanse and purge the 
body both upwards and downwards, some- 
times of tough phlegm and clammy hum- 
ours; and to open obstructions of the liver 
and spleen." Finally Dr. Withering ap- 
peared on the scene, and the careful study 
of foxglove and its uses began. 

Leonard Fuchs, in his De Historia Stir- 
pium (1542), presented the first exact de- 
scription of the plant and also a good wood- 




DIGITALIS PURPUREA 

Woodcut from Matthias de Lobel's "Kruydtboeck," 
published at Antwerp, Belgium, in 1581. 

cut of it. Noting that there was no Latin 
name for the foxglove, he coined one, 
"Digitalis," meaning of or belonging to the 
finger, in reference to the flowers, which 
are shaped like thimbles or the fingers of 
a glove. This name is now used for the 
genus to which the foxglove belongs, and 
the foxglove itself is called Digitalis pur- 
purea (purple). The name foxglove ap- 
pears to be a corruption of the old Eng- 
lish name of the plant, Folks' Glove, which 
can be traced back about ten centuries. It 
has been suggested that the "fox" refers to 
the fact that the plant grows in the haunts 
of foxes. Actually, while foxglove does 
occur where foxes may be found, it also 
occurs in the haunts of a great many other 
animals. This suggestion as to the origin of 
the name might best be called improbable. 



The United States Pharmacopoeia defines 
the drug digitalis as the dried leaf of Digi- 
talis purpurea. The leaves are collected from 
either first- or second-year plants, usually 
from July to September. They are dried 
rapidly, either with or without artificial 
heat, and then are stored and shipped in 
airtight, waterproof containers. In the 
period between the World Wars a yearly 
average of about 50,000 pounds of digitalis 
was imported into the United States, chiefly 
from England and continental Europe. At 
the present time much of our supply is 
grown in Pennsylvania, Minnesota, and the 
Pacific Northwest. Sufficient digitalis to 
meet domestic medical needs can be grown 
on several hundred acres. 

Digitalis is commonly administered as 
tablets made either from the powdered 
leaves or from an extract of the leaves. 
Another form sometimes used is a 70 to 75 
per cent alcohol tincture of the leaf. The 
most active principle in this drug is a glyco- 
side called digitoxin, a colorless, odorless, 
crystalline, bitter substance. When digi- 
talis is taken in any of its forms, the heart 
is regulated to beat more uniformly and 
efficiently because its muscle tone is im- 
proved. There is an increase in the force of 
contraction of the heart muscle that pushes 
the blood through the arteries. The period 
of the heart's relaxing and filling up again 
is prolonged. Digitalis has tided many 
people over a period of severe cardiac crises. 

HANDSOME GARDEN PLANT 

The foxglove, well known as an orna- 
mental plant, is a biennial, producing during 
the first year of its growth only a rosette of 
leaves. In the second season the leafy 
flower stalk appears and reaches a height of 
usually three to four feet. The bell-shaped 
flowers, up to three inches long, vary in 
color from white to lavender and purple. 
When the foxglove is in bloom, the numerous 
large blossoms make this plant one of the 
most handsome to be seen in our gardens. 
The genus Digitalis contains some thirty 
species, native to central and southern Eur- 
ope, the Canary Islands, and western and 
central Asia. Many of these are cultivated 
as ornamental plants, and all of them seem 
to have the same medicinal effect as the 
foxglove. 

Foxglove is a member of the figwort 
family (Scrophulariaceae), a group whose 
flowers are surpassed in variety of form and 
color only by the orchids. Relatively few 
members of this family are of economic 
importance. These include numerous gar- 
den subjects such as penstemon, veronica, 
torenia, linaria, and the ubiquitous snap- 
dragon; the parasitic witch weeds of Africa 
and Asia, depredators of cereal crops; and 
the princess trees of eastern Asia that yield 
commercial timber. But of all the figwort 
family, none is more important to man than 
the foxglove, source of one of the most 
dependable and useful of all plant drugs. 



September, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



NATURE MYSTERY: THE SECRET OF THE PACA'S POUCHES 



By PHILIP HERSHKOVITZ 

CURATOR OF MAMMALS 

THE PACA is a large rodent that lives in 
the forests of tropical America. It is 
about the same size and shape as its close 
relative, the porcupine, but its fur is short 
and stiff, not spiny, and the upper parts of 
its body are flecked by fawn-like rows of 
whitish spots. The hind legs are long, the 
ears are short and rounded, and the tail is 
a mere nubbin. 

The really amazing thing about the paca, 
is the extraordinary development of its 




Drawing by Tom Dol.ui 

MYSTERY SOLVED 

The paca of tropical America is a large, spotted 

rodent with a broad head and strange cheek-pouches. 

The function of the pouches has just been discovered 

by Curator Hershkovitz. 

cheek bones. They are expanded into enor- 
mous chambers, one on each side of the face. 
A slit-like opening in front of each eye 
reveals the presence of the chamber. The 
skin of the face dips through this opening 
into the front part of the bony chamber 
where it forms a hairy pocket. The lining 
of the mouth of the animal forms another 
pouch that fits into the back part of the 
same expanded portion of the cheek bone. 
Thus, each side of the head has a pair of 
pouches, one inner and one outer, which 
touch each other. Any pressure on one 
pouch pushes its mate in the same direction. 
There is absolutely nothing like this any- 
where else in nature. 

How does the paca use this remarkable 
combination of a pair of extensible skin 
pouches lodged within each cheek-bone 
chamber? This question has mystified 
hunters and intrigued and baffled zoologists 
for centuries. 

FOOD STORAGE RULED OUT 

Is it possible that the cheek pouches of 
the paca are used for storing food? Certain 
other rodents, and Old World monkeys too, 
have cheek pouches that serve that very 
purpose. Such pouches, however, are quite 
different from those of the paca. They are 
simple extensible folds of skin entirely in- 
dependent of facial bones, and there is only 
one on each side of the mouth. They are 
filled with food by hand and they are 
emptied by hand, or by the muscles of the 
cheek, with or without the aid of the tongue. 
The cheek pouches of the paca cannot be 
used this way. The opening of each outer 
pouch is narrow and framed with bone, and 



it would be impossible for the paca to force 
food into it with its forefeet. In any case, 
the pouch is too small to serve as a food 
reservoir for an animal so large. As for each 
internal pouch — it was never designed for 
storage. In the final analysis, no one has 
ever found food in the pouches of a paca. 

I had many opportunities during the 
course of Museum expeditions to observe 
pacas in their natural abodes. I studied 
their habits and learned the most successful 
ways to hunt them. I performed dissections 
on a number of them, but an explanation for 
the existence of the cheek pouches was not 
apparent. Native hunters, wise in the ways 
of the paca, only shrugged when I showed 
them the pouches and tambor-shaped 
chamber of the cheek bone. Odd structures, 
they admitted, but are not all pacas made 
that way? 

Everyone agreed that the flesh of the paca 
is delicious no matter how prepared. The 
liver, however, is bad medicine and should 
not be eaten. Indians of the Amazon basin 
point out that the tusk of the paca mounted 
with beeswax on their blowguns for a sight 
insures deadly aim and good hunting. 
Others aver that one of the leg bones, the 
fibula, makes a good spatula for spreading 
hot pepper-sauce over the meat. Yes, 
wilderness sages could tell me how well the 
paca serves them, but none knew how the 
cheek pouches serve the paca. 

A gourmet's delight 

It isn't that the paca is one of those rare 
species known only to specialists in natural 
history and to a few lucky hunters. This 
shy nocturnal beast is undoubtedly the most 
sought-after game animal in all forested 




An XnJ'fM 



Cartoon by Ruth Andris 

parts of Latin America from southern 
Mexico to southern Brazil. It is pursued 
for food by the fox, the ocelot, the jaguar, 
and the Indian with the same avidity as 
a gourmet selects it from the menu of the 



choicest restaurants below the border. The 
Spanish discoverers of the mainland, the 
first Europeans to taste the light-pink suc- 
culent flesh of the paca, gave rapturous 
accounts of its exquisite flavor. The Span- 
iards, however, never let their interest in 
the animal stray from the purely gastro- 
nomic level. They said nothing about the 
peculiarities of the paca's cheeks. 

My hope for finding the solution for the 
mystery lay in hunting the paca and ob- 
serving it in nature. The animal lives in 
burrows in rocky ground or at the base of 
trees between the main roots. Frequently 
it makes its abode in caves. The paca's 
burrow has at least two entrances and, 
where the substratum is honeycombed, there 
may be as many as a dozen openings leading 
to the nest. There are runways from the 
openings of the burrows to the various 
feeding places and, invariably, to water. 




Drawing by Tom Dolan 

•COUSINS' COMPARED 
The enormously expanded cheekbone enclosing the 
pouches of the paca (on the left) has been drawn 
with a broken line. The animal's relative, the por- 
cupine, which has a normal cheekbone, is shown 
on the right. 

The rodent not only drinks copiously but 
instinctively seeks safety in water when 
pursued. The Spanish name guardatinaje, 
corrupted in some parts of Latin America to 
guatinaje, guatin, and guanta, means "animal 
that refuges in water holes." To catch 
a paca at home, it is necessary quickly to 
locate and block all but one of the entrances 
to the nest. To make sure the animal is 
really trapped, the hunter pokes a long stem 
or sapling through the remaining open hole 
and listens for the sound of the prodded 
beast. If present, the paca responds with 
a rumbling noise that reverberates like low 
distant thunder. The animal is then dug out 
or smoked out, or it may be pulled out by 
a dog small enough to gain entrance to the 
nest. Unhappily I failed to learn anything 
about the cheek pouches from pacas taken 
this way. 

mystery solved at last 

It was a specially set live-trap during my 
last expedition to Colombia that made the 
paca give up its secret. Live-trapping for 
pacas along their runways demands great 
care to avoid contamination of the trail and 
(Continued on page 7, column 3) 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



September, 1956 



EXHIBIT OF WORLD'S SONGBIRDS COMPLETED 



By AUSTIN L. RAND 

CHIEF CURATOR OF ZOOLOGY 

OUR DISPLAY of the songbirds of the 
world has been completed with the in- 
stallation of a third exhibit representing ten 
families from larks to birds of paradise. 
This is part of a project planned to present 
in Boardman Conover Hall (Hall 21) a syn- 
opsis of the birds of the world. Represent- 
ative examples of each family or of related 
families are grouped together on plaques 




BIRDS OF PARADISE 
Part of the new addition to exhibit of songbirds in 

with perches reduced to a minimum to 
avoid distracting attention from the birds 
themselves. Collateral material, such as 
nests, sketches, and diagrams, are intro- 
duced to increase the information presented 
and to avoid monotony in the exhibit, 
while background and plaques are painted 
in harmonizing pastel shades to add to the 
pleasing effect. This accords with the ex- 
hibition technique developed in Chicago 
Natural History Museum for this display as 
described in earlier Museum Bulletins 
(November, 1952, p. 6, and July 1955, p. 4). 
The new exhibit contains some of the 
most widespread and best-known groups of 
birds, such as the larks, including the Euro- 
pean skylark, whose flight song inspired the 
poets Shelley and Wordsworth; the swallows, 



harbingers of spring; and the crows and jays, 
among the most intelligent of birds. 

However, a number of the families are 
exclusively Old World, such as cuckoo 
shrikes and Old World orioles; and several 
are restricted to the antipodes in the Aus- 
tralian-New Guinea area: the bell magpies 
and the Australian butcherbirds, the magpie 
larks, the bowerbirds, and the birds of 
paradise. 

The birds of paradise have received 
more space than the 
small number of 
species in the family 
(only about 40) would 
warrant, if it were not 
for their bizarre and 
beautiful ornamenta- 
tion and their strange 
displays. We have 
shown the greater bird 
of paradise of the New 
Guinea forests, which 
at mating time gathers 
in bands in the tree- 
tops where the birds 
raise their long orange- 
yellow flank plumes 
and go through elabo- 
rate dances; the long- 
tailed bird of paradise 
with its velvety fron- 
tal shield edged with 
burnished copper; the 
superb bird of paradise 
with its metallic green- 
blue breast shield and 
its velvety cape 
erected; the red king 
bird of paradise; and 
the orange-winged 
magnificent bird of 
paradise. 

Perhaps most un- 
usual of all is the blue 
bird of paradise, which 
in its display hangs 

loardman Conover Hall. upside down SO that 

its vivid blue plumes 
fall in filmy blue sprays on each side of its 
body to frame a maroon and black spot in 
the middle of its belly. Correlated with 
such extravagant courtship behavior, these 
species are polygamous. The female is dull 
colored, and she alone looks after the nest, 
the eggs, and the young. 

'poor relations' 

Contrasting with these "dandies" in the 
family are some that are practically "poor 
relations," illustrated by the manucode in 
the exhibit. They have no brilliant plumes, 
are monogamous, and both sexes take 
a share in nest duties. 

The bowerbirds are another family closely 
related to the birds of paradise and the 
crows. They are relatively dull-colored 



birds, but what they lack in physical orna- 
mentation they have made up in special- 
ized behavior. To take the place of brilliant 
and bizarre plumage, bowerbirds have 
developed the bower-building habit. Some 
of the bowers are saucer-shaped structures 
of moss with a "maypole" raised in the 
center; others are hut-like or wigwam-like, 
and the birds spread brilliantly colored 
objects in front of them like flower gardens; 
and others include an "avenue" lined on 
each side with a fence of twigs stuck upright, 
and at each end of this avenue the birds 
make a platform decked with various objects 
that attract them, such as bones, shells, and 
fruit. 

'lonely hearts clubs' 

The birds use these bowers as dancing 
and mating stations and spend a great deal 
of time keeping them in repair and changing 
the decorations. We have shown in this 
family the catbird, the regent's bowerbird, 
and the satin bowerbird with a small piece 
of its bower. This last species has two 
special distinctions. It is the only bird I 
know that orients a structure north and 
south, building its avenue so that the walls 
shade the structure except at midday. Also, 
it uses a wad of vegetable material saturated 
with fruit juice or with ground-up charcoal 
and saliva to actually paint the walls of the 
avenue in its bower. 



Curator Returns from Bahamas 

Dr. Fritz Haas, Curator of Lower In- 
vertebrates, has returned from a field trip 
to the island of North Bimini in the Ba- 
hamas. For several weeks he was the guest 
of New York's American Museum of Natural 
History at its Lerner Marine Laboratory in 
North Bimini. He made studies of the life- 
conditions of sessile marine-invertebrates in 
the shallow waters of the Bahama Bank, as 
well as of the land mollusks on the three 
little islands that constitute the Bimini 
group. Data obtained by him will be of 
value in connection with a projected ex- 
hibition program. 



Daily Guide-Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered daily 
except Sundays under the title "Highlights 
of the Exhibits." These tours are designed 
to give a general idea of the entire Museum 
and its scope of activities. They begin at 
2 p.m. on Monday through Friday and at 
2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 

Special tours on subjects within the range 
of the Museum exhibits are available Mon- 
days through Fridays for parties of ten or 
more persons. Requests for such service 
must be made at least one week in advance. 

Although there are no tours on Sundays 
(and none on Saturday, September 1 or 
Labor Day, September 3), the Museum is 
open from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. on those days. 



September, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



A SCIENTIST'S ADVICE 
TO OUR SCHOOLS 

(Continued from page 2) 

vertisements of biological supply houses that 
make a business of supplying material and 
plans for projects. For schools competing 
in science fairs, there is the science fair 
organization itself, which will give advice 
and information about sources. In book 
shops never was there such a flood of natural- 
history literature, in low-priced editions, 
even comic books, and much of this material 
is of high quality. Even the daily papers 
carry a surprising amount of natural history. 
And finally, if there is a natural-history 
museum within reach, the pupil should 
visit it and look at the exhibits. He should 
not ask the curators to supply the material 
and plans, doing both the pupil's and the 
teacher's work! 

OUTLINE FOR PROPER GUIDANCE 

My attitude regarding such inquiries is 
best shown by the following actual answers 
to such letters: 

(1.) "In regard to your request for all 
information on animals, I doubt that you 
realize the scope of your question. There 
are probably more than 1,000,000 different 
species of animals and we have hundreds 
of volumes containing information about 
them. 

"As yours is a school project, instead of 
my sending you information I will point 
out how you can go about your project 
using material at hand. Begin with the 
volumes available to you in your school 
library. Look up the word animal, then all 
the names of animals you can think of: 
mammal, bird, fish, reptile, starfish, mol- 
lusk, squid, worm, amoeba, etc., and the 
additional names you find along the way. 
The amount of material you find in a big 
dictionary will probably surprise you. If 
you are interested further, go to an en- 
cyclopedia and repeat the process. Then 
look up textbooks on biology available 
through your teacher. Perhaps you have 
a local library with back files of the National 
Geographic Magazine or Nature Magazine 
or Chicago Natural History Museum 
Bulletin, amongst others in which there 
is a wealth of material. 

(2.) "Rather than sending the feathers and 
the information you ask for your project, 
I would make another suggestion. Having 
had some experience with high-school proj- 
ects and their aims, I would suggest that 
rather than getting as many different kinds 
of feathers as possible, you endeavor to find 
out as much as you can about the feathers 
of some bird that is available to you. 
Surely a duck, chicken, pigeon, pheasant, 
crow, or starling — some common bird — 
could be secured for study. Then you will 
find a whole field to investigate right there. 
There are different kinds of feathers on the 



same bird : flight feathers, contour feathers, 
filoplumes, and down feathers. There is the 
structure of each feather: barbs, barbules, 
etc., that can be studied under a lens or 
a microscope. There are different functions 
for feathers and different ways in which 
they integrate into a whole. This varies 
with the different types of feathers on the 
same bird. Then there is the arrangement 
of the feathers on the bird. They are not 
distributed uniformly nor haphazardly, but 
are arranged in orderly patterns. Color 
pattern of course is another aspect. Finally, 
there is the question of the uses of the 
various feathers: the pinions for flight, the 
rectrices for steering and balancing, the body 
feathers for protection from the weather, 
and the down feathers for warmth. The 
number of feathers on a bird can also be 
counted and there is in some species a differ- 
ence between the number present in summer 
and in winter, perhaps an adaptation to 
climate. 

"As you can see, there is more than 
enough material for a high-school project 
in the feathers of a single common bird. 
I suggest that a project along these lines 
would be much more profitable to you in 
the amount you learn, than making a hap- 
hazard collection of feathers of different 
kinds of birds." 

(3.) "In regard to your request for infor- 
mation about the origin of parakeets, I note 
that this is a biology class project, so I 
assume you would like some suggestions 
as to how to go about looking up information 
about parakeets. 

"The first thing to do is to look in the 
dictionaries and the encyclopedias in your 
school or public library. Then look up 
books on parrots or perhaps general books 
on cage birds or birds as pets. 

"In looking up the parakeets you will find 
that the common parakeet that is so popular 
in the United States today is also called 
a budgerigar, shell parakeet, Australian 
lovebird, Australian parakeet, and warbling 
or undulated grass parakeet. Its scientific 
name is Melopsittacus undulatus, and it 
comes from Australia. If you can find any 
book on Australian birds in your local 
library, that also may help you in your 
project. 

"The first living budgerigar was brought 
to Europe in 1840. Since then it has become 
very popular as a cage bird and pet in 
Europe and in America. 

"Since about 1900 parakeets have been 
raised on a large scale in Europe and since 
1924 in America. 

"Some magazine, such as All-Pets Maga- 
zine, might also supply you with additional 
information about these birds." 



MYSTERY OF THE PACA 
AND ITS POUCHES 

(Continued from page 5) 
trap with suspicious odors. The wily paca 
survives even in well-settled countrysides 
because it becomes more wary and sensitive 
to danger as its enemies increase. The paca 
that smells a trap in its runway will never 
use that trail again. I set my trap at the 
foot of a steep slope where the animal was 
obliged to slide or jump without means for 
detaining itself or deviating from course. 
The trap was triggered in the morning. 
Heavy rains, later in the day, washed away 
all strange odors before the paca emerged 
that night. Not only did the snare work but, 
to my great astonishment, the captive 
obligingly showed me how its cheek pouches 
function! 

The beast, an adult male weighing about 
20 pounds, was held in the trap by its fore- 
foot. At my approach, the furious animal 
suddenly emitted the familiar rumbling 
noise with its mouth closed and then clicked 
its front teeth rapidly. When I withdrew 
a short distance, the animal quieted down. 
When I neared again, it repeated the sound 
and the clicking of its incisors. After a few 
attempts at slashing with those long, thick 
tusks, the animal permitted me to come 
within a few inches of its mouth. At that 
historic moment I saw the closed ends of the 
external pouches just barely extruding 
through the slits on the sides of the face and 
quivering as the rumbling sound was being 
made. The enigma of pouches and cham- 
bered cheek bones was solved. Here was one 
of nature's oddest mechanisms for the ampli- 
fication and reverberation of sound. The 
vibrating air is forced from the closed mouth 
into the internal pouches. The latter distend 
against the external pouches forcing them to 
extrude slightly and to flutter because of the 
variable pressure. The bony chambers pro- 
tect the delicate pouches and act as resonat- 
ing chambers. 

Development of a unique system for 
sound production in pacas opens up the 
problem of special sound-producing organs 
in other animals. The inflated resonating 
drum at the base of the tongue in howler 
monkeys is just as remarkable as the cheek- 
bone chambers of the paca. But "How the 
Howler Howls" would make a good title 
for another story. 



Seasonal Change in Visiting Hours 

Autumn visiting hours, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., 
will go into effect at the Museum on Sep- 
tember 4, the day after Labor Day. 



Research in Great Lakes Area 

Test excavations on sites of early American 
Indians in areas of the Upper Peninsula of 
Michigan near the Wisconsin border were 
made last month by George I. Quimby, 
Curator of North American Archaeology 
and Ethnology. This field trip was part of 
a general Great Lakes area research-project 
in which anthropologists, botanists, and 
geologists of a number of Midwest museums, 
colleges, and universities are participating. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



September, 1956 



LECTURES ON SATURDAYS 
TO BEGIN OCTOBER 6 

The Museum's 106th course of free illus- 
trated lectures for adults will be presented 
on the eight Saturday afternoons in October 
and November. All of the lectures will be 
given at 2:30 P.M. in the James Simpson 
Theatre. Color motion-pictures will ac- 
company each lecture. 

The opening program will be "Minnesota," 
on October 6, when Fran William Hall of 
the National Audubon Society will present 
a naturalist's viewpoint as he shows in color 
films the scenic beauties and the wildlife of 
"the land of 10,000 lakes." 

The complete schedule of the eight lec- 
tures will appear in the October Bulletin. 
A section of the Theatre is reserved for 
Members of the Museum at each program. 
Each Member is entitled to two reserved 
seats, for which requests should be made 
in advance by telephone (W Abash 2-9410) 
or by mail. Seats will be held in the 
Member's name until 2:25 P.M. on the day 
of the program. 



SATURDAY PROGRAMS 
FOR CHILDREN 

"Alohaland" — a visit to beautiful Hawaii 
in color motion-pictures — will be the open- 
ing program in the series of free motion- 
pictures for children to be presented on 
Saturday mornings at 10:30 o'clock during 
October and November in the James 
Simpson Theatre. The shows are given 
under the auspices of the James Nelson and 
Anna Louise Raymond Foundation. 

On the first program, October 6, in ad- 
dition to the films, Fran William Hall of the 
National Audubon Society will make 
a personal appearance to tell his story of 
the people, animals, and plants of Hawaii. 

Titles of the seven other programs during 
the two months will be announced in the 
October Bulletin. No tickets are needed 
for admission, and children are invited to 
attend alone, accompanied by parents or 
other adults, or in groups from schools, 
clubs, and other centers. 



STAFF NOTES 



Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator of Insects, 
and Henry S. Dybas, Associate Curator, 
attended the meeting of the Tenth Inter- 
national Congress of Entomology at Mont- 
real from August 17 to 25, where Curator 
Wenzel presented a paper on photomicrog- 
raphy and other techniques. Associate 
Curator Dybas accompanied other members 
of the congress on a field trip to Laurentide 
National Park where he collected minute 
insects of the forest floor and treeholes .... 



Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, Curator Emeritus 
of Zoology, gave four lectures before high- 
school and college teachers at the Insti- 
tute of Biology held at the University of 
Utah under the auspices of the National 
Science Foundation. He has been invited 
by the American Institute of Biological 
Sciences to speak at several small colleges 
of the Midwest during the forthcoming 
academic year .... Dr. Theodor Just, 
Chief Curator of Botany, presented a paper 
on paleobotany at the annual meeting at the 
University of Connecticut last month of the 
American Institute of Biological Sciences. 



Studies of Volcanoes Resumed 

Dr. Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator of 
Geology, left last month for field trips in 
Mexico and Central America to continue 
his studies of volcanoes and collect speci- 
mens of volcanic products. After attending 
the International Geological Congress in 
Mexico City and participating in study- 
excursions to recent and Cenozoic volcanoes, 
he will proceed to Central America for 
further research and collecting at volcanoes 
in Nicaragua, Guatemala, and, if time per- 
mits, other countries. He will return to the 
Museum late in October. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of principal gifts re- 
ceived during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology: 

From: University of Chicago — 41 flint 
artifacts, southern France; Giles Healey, 
Pacific Palisades, Calif. — 3 photographs of 
Stela 2 at Bonampak, Mexico; Roberto 
Quiroz, Tempe, Ariz. — wool poncho and 
leather cap, Bolivia; Dennis E. Shanahan, 
Chicago — 12 prehistoric Eskimo objects of 
bone and ivory, Point Barrow, Alaska 

Department of Botany: 

From: Director of Agriculture, Reduit, 
Mauritius — 25 seed samples of agricultural 
legumes; Dr. L. J. Gier, Liberty, Mo. — 
2 Festuca; Miss Nellie Haynie, Elmhurst, 
111. — a Rhamnus frangula; University of 
Minnesota, St. Paul — 3 seed samples of 
hybrid Zea mays; G. E. Moore, St. Louis — 
an anemone; New York State College of 
Agriculture, Ithaca, N.Y. — 2 photographs 
of Dutch-elm-disease-fungus fruiting bodies; 
E. J. Palmer, Webb City, Mo.— 594 plants 

Department of Zoology: 

From: Mrs. Charles Fernald, Chicago — 
a mounted passenger pigeon; Arthur M. 
Greenhall, Trinidad, B.W.I.— 12 coral 
snakes; Miss La Verne Hand, a collection of 
shells, worldwide; W. J. Hanson, Lawrence, 
Kan. — 2 paratypes of a stratiomyid fly, 
Duchesne, Utah; Dr. Hans Holub, Indonesia 
— 4 frogs, 2 lizards, apple-snails, 3 fishes; 
Harry Hoogstraal, Cairo, Egypt — 3 frogs; 
Hermano Niceforo Maria, Bogota, Colombia 
— 8 salamanders, 172 frogs, 5 lizards, 9 
snakes; Dr. Edward C. Raney, Ithaca, N.Y. 
— 2 fishes, North Carolina; University of 
Texas, Austin — 7 fishes 



EXPEDITION RETURNS 
FROM PERU DIG 

The 1956 Archaeological Expedition to 
Peru returned to the Museum in August. 
Under the leadership of Dr. Donald Collier, 
Curator of South American Archaeology and 
Ethnology, the expedition completed six 
months of exploration and excavations in 
Casma Valley on the Peruvian coast, 200 
miles north of Lima. Curator Collier was 
assisted by Donald Thompson, who is 
a graduate student at Harvard University. 
The expedition was made possible by a grant 
from the National Science Foundation. 

Previous to this year's work the Casma 
Valley had been one of the least-known 
archaeologically of the coastal valleys. For 
this reason an attempt was made to study 
all parts of the valley to determine the 
number, character, and age of the pre- 
historic settlements and other ruins. De- 
tailed studies, including mapping, photo- 
graphy, and the making of surface collec- 
tions, were carried out at fifty-three sites, 
and test excavations were made at ten of 
these. Of particular interest to the expedi- 
tion were two large towns laid out in 
rectangular grid pattern, each covering 
nearly a square mile. These dated from the 
Tiahuanaco period, about a.d. 1000. 

The expedition's collection, consisting of 
ceramics, fragments of textiles, organic 
materials from refuse deposits (animal bones, 
shells, and vegetable material), and wood 
samples for radiocarbon dating, will be 
shipped to the Museum from Peru in the 
near future. Then will begin the task of 
laboratory analysis and of piecing together 
the lives of the ancient farmers and town 
dwellers of Casma Valley. 



NEW MEMBERS 
(July 16 to August 15) 

Associate Members 

J. W. Anderson, Joseph W. Hibben, 
Frank P. Kosmach, Lawrence E. Langdon, 
Van E. Marker, Dr. Peter S. Y. Neskow, 
Dr. Melvin R. Salk, E. W. Zimmerman 

Non-Resident Associate Member 

George R. Baxter 

Sustaining Members 

Wilfrid X. Stanhaus, Douglas E. Tibbitts 

Annual Members 

C. Foster Brown, Jr., Mrs. Dorothy M. 
Burwell, James A. Cuca, Draper Daniels, 
R. C. Dickinson, Louis Fishman, Mrs. 
Donald W. Fiske, Kenneth S. Flagg, J. D. 
Fuchs, Mrs. Milton Handelsman, Miss 
Marie Hill, George S. Isham, A. C. Ketzler, 
E. Richard Kuehne, Charles W. Lake, Jr., 
Fenton D. Lapham, Roger MacArthur, 
Ray J. McCurdy, Stephen M. Murphy, Mrs. 
Max D. Orr, Frank J. Richter, Mrs. James 
E. Rutherford, Paul A. Schroeder, L. W. 
Stratton, Ray G. Torgerson, Guy H. Van 
Swearingen, Mrs. Charles F. Venrick, 
Lester Witte 



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Saturdays, 10:30 a.m., Movies for Children" 
Saturdays, 2:30 p.m., Film-Lectures for Adults 

MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT, FRIDAY, OCTOBER 12 

Preview of New Exhibits, Theatre Program, and 
Open House (7 to 10:30 p.m.) 



Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



October, 1956 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery Hughston M. McBain 

Wm. McCormick Blair William H. Mitchell 

Walther Buchen John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Walter J. Cummings Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

Samuel Insull, Jr. John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field -   President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Hughston M. McBain Second Vtce-Pr«siden( 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 

Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sh arat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Jane Rockwell 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



INTERNATIONAL MUSEUM WEEK 
SPOTLIGHTS CO-OPERATION 

A surprising number of Museum visitors 
are unacquainted with forces behind the 
scenes that are constantly at work to im- 
prove exhibits and research collections. 
One of these forces is the nourishing ex- 
change program carried on among museums 
all over the world. 

Chicago Natural History Museum, via 
a network of good will, exchanges knowl- 
edge and thereby shares knowledge with the 
largest and most renowned or the smallest 
and most remote institutions of the world. 
While relations among countries continu- 
ally fluctuate from friendship to mere 
toleration to outright enmity, museums 
maintain consistently active exchange rela- 
tions that are dedicated, in the final analysis, 
to increasing man's understanding of him- 
self and his world. 

Co-operation among museums and allied 
institutions also makes it possible for 
students, scholars, and scientists to visit 
foreign institutions to gain new ideas and, 
in some cases, even to learn more about 
their own countries. A scientist from the 
Dark Continent visiting this Museum was 
heard to remark, "How strange that I 
should come to Chicago to learn about 
Africa." 

International Museum Week, under the 
sponsorship of the U. S. National Com- 



mission of UNESCO and the International 
Council of Museums, will be held from 
October 7 through October 13 as a world- 
wide effort to focus attention on the peaceful 
and creative role of the museums of the 
world. A special exhibit in Stanley Field 
Hall during International Museum Week 
will display specimens and publications on 
loan or received in exchange from foreign 
institutions, illustrations of our Museum 
exhibits that have appeared in foreign 
publications, and publications of this Mu- 
seum dealing with collections from other 
lands. 

Last year the Museum's four departments 
— Anthropology, Botany, Geology and 
Zoology — participated in 74 exchanges of 
natural-science material with other mu- 
seums, institutions, libraries, and individu- 
als located all over the world. A glance at 
the lists of material received in exchange 
last year reveals the world-wide scope of 
the program. A plaster torso from Thebes, 
Egypt, sent by the Brooklyn Museum, 
arrived in the Department of Anthropology. 
A collection of Devonian fishes found in the 
Baltic Sea was sent to the Department of 
Geology from the natural history museum 
in Stockholm, Sweden. Wood specimens 
came to the Department of Geology from 
institutions in Argentina, Ceylon, Arizona, 
Germany, New York, Southern Rhodesia, 
and the Union of South Africa. A listing of 
(Continued on page 8, column 1 ) 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



The three grotesque carvings 
reproduced on our cover are 
unique examples of Polynesian 
art. They were selected to es- 
tablish the motif of three halls 
of material from Pacific isles 
featured for this year's Museum 
Members' Night, October 12. The 
two standing figures, from Easter 
Island, are carved from driftwood 
(there are virtually no trees on the 
island). They are called Moai 
Kavakava and represent vener- 
ated ancestors. The imposing 
and somber mask-like carving 
dominating the background is 
a gable ornament from a Maori 
house. The carving represents 
the intricate curvilinear incised 
patterns used by Maori specialists 
in tattooing the faces of warriors. 
The tall figure is a recent gift 
from Robert Trier, of Chicago, 
a Contributor of the Museum. 
The smaller figure was presented 
by Sister M. Inez Hilger, of Saint 
Cloud, Minnesota. The gable 
ornament was donated by William 
Preston Harrison, of Chicago. 



MEMBERS' NIGHT 
PROGRAM 

Friday, October 12 

7 p.m. to 10:30 p.m. 

(Museum doors open at 6 p.m.) 



FOR YOUR CONVENIENCE—. 

Special Motor-Bus Service has been 
arranged for Museum Members and guests 
who do not wish to drive their own cars. A 
bus marked to indicate that it is for Museum 
shuttle-service will leave Jackson Boulevard 
and State Street at 15-minute intervals 
beginning at 6:30 p.m. The last bus will 
leave the Museum at 10:45 p.m. In both 
directions intermediate stops will be made 
at 7th Street and Michigan and at Jackson 
and Michigan. 

Ample Free Parking Space is available 
to the north of the Museum building for 
those who drive. 

You May Dine at the Museum in the 
Cafeteria (ground floor). Open 6 to 8 p.m. 
(regular service and prices). 



FOR YOUR ENTERTAINMENT— 

Preview of New Exhibits: Isles of the 
Pacific. Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, 
and Indonesia (Halls A, F, and G, on Ground 
Floor). Also, A Visit to the Home of 
a Cameroons Tribal King (Hall E, Ground 
Floor). 

Special Exhibit: World-Wide Rela- 
tions of the Museum (arranged for Inter- 
national Museum Week, October 7 through 
13). 

MOTION PICTURES, 9:15 P.M. 

In James Simpson Theatre 
(Ground Floor West) 

"KAPINOAMARANQI' ' 

A color-film documenting life in Oceania 
today with the changes brought about in the 
postwar years; with narration by Roland 
W. Force, Curator of Oceanic Archaeology 
and Ethnology. Preceding the film will be 
an address of welcome to Members by 
Dr. Clifford C. Gregg, Director, and a re- 
view of the work of the Department of 
Anthropology by Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief 
Curator. 

Open House: "Behind the Scenes," 
7 to 9 p.m. Visitors are invited to take the 
elevator to third and fourth floors where the 
scientific staff and other Museum workers 
will welcome them in laboratories, studios, 
offices, and the Library and explain various 
phases of a museum's operation. Some lab- 
oratories also will be found on the Ground 
Floor. 



October, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 3 



MEMBERS' NIGHT: A 'JOURNEY' TO OCEANIA AND AFRICA 



MEMBERS of the Museum and 
their guests are invited — on 
Members' Night, Friday, October 

12 — to make a journey such as no 
travel agency, ship line, or airline can 
offer. In a single evening our visitors 
will go on a tour that ranges through 
each of the principal island groups 
of the Pacific — Melanesia, Polynesia, 
Micronesia, and Indonesia — and 
thence by magic carpet to far-off 
Africa where they will be guests at 
the "palace" (actually a large mud 



hut with thatched roof) of a king in 
the Cameroons. Doors of the Mu- 
seum will open at 6 P.M. to accommo- 
date Members and guests who wish 
to dine in the Museum Cafeteria (6 
to 8 P.M.). Open house will be held 
in the third and fourth floor labora- 
tories and offices by the scientific 
and technical staff of the Museum 
from 7 to 9 P.M. A notable color 
motion-picture, " Kapingamarangi," 
of life today in a Pacific isle will be 
shown in the James Simpson Theatre 



at 9:15 P.M., with narration by 
Roland W. Force, Curator of Oceanic 
Archaeology and Ethnology. Preced- 
ing the film, Dr. Clifford C. Gregg, 
Director of the Museum, will make a 
welcoming address, and Dr. Paul S. 
Martin, Chief Curator of Anthro- 
pology, will review the work of his 
department. There is ample free 
parking-space for Members' cars. 
Free motor-coach service to and from 
the Museum will be provided (for 
details see program on page 2). 



OUR PACIFIC EXHIBITS 
ARE WORTH A BRAG! 

By ROLAND W. FORCE 

CURATOR OF OCEANIC ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

WARANGA tangata haul 
So end the folk tales on one Pacific 
island. When translated from the Polynesian 
dialect to English the phrase means :"Just 
a tale told by people." 

Culture, in the anthropological use of the 
term, is just that — just a tale told by people 




EASTER-ISLAND ENIGMA 
One of many massive sculptured stone heads, the 
significance of which is a mystery even to the Poly- 
nesian inhabitants of the isle today. Some of the 
heads exceed 25 feet in height. In one of the Mu- 
seum's Pacific halls (Hall F) large reproductions 
may be seen on Members' Night. 

— told by their customs, their manufactures, 
their daily life. In the long run, it becomes 
converted into history — in the short run, it 
is a slice of the continuum of life. Outside 
of the living tale as it may be witnessed on 
an actual visit to the islands, the tale of life 
in the Pacific is told better in the halls of 



Chicago Natural History Museum than any- 
where else in the world. A new presenta- 
tion of the Museum's exhibits from these 
areas, is now offered in thoroughly refur- 
bished halls (Halls A, A-l, F, and G), in 
which new artistry has been applied in the 
arrangement of the exhibits to show in- 
dividual objects and groups of objects to 
better advantage. 

The tales told by the native peoples of the 
Pacific are many and varied. In each case 
the denouement of these tales was brought 
about by contact with explorers, traders, 
whalers, and missionaries — the representa- 
tives of more technologically complex so- 
cieties. These contacts in greater or lesser 
degree resulted in changes of plot of cata- 
strophic proportions. In more than one 
instance the casts simply died out, leaving 
only the empty stage upon which the tale 
had been enacted for centuries — a lonely, 
palm-studded, coral-reefed pinpoint in a vast 
ocean. In other cases the stage properties 
changed, the actors were coached in new 
techniques, outfitted in different costumes, 
forced to alter their plots. However altered, 
the show has gone on, the tales continue. 

Sir Peter Buck (Te Rangi Hiroa), noted 
part-Maori anthropologist, once used an 
old Maori proverb analogically to demon- 
strate the great "change of plot" in the 
cultures of the Pacific: 

The old net is laid aside; 
A new net goes a-fishing. 

"The old world created by our Polynesian 
ancestors has passed away, and a new world 
is in the process of being fashioned," mused 
Sir Peter, expanding upon this proverb. 
"The stone temples have been destroyed, 
and the temple drums and shell trumpets 
have long been silent. Tane, Tu, Rongo, 
Tangaroa and the other members of the 
divine family of the Sky-father and the 
Earth-mother have left us. The great 
voyaging canoes have crumbled to dust, 
and the sea captains and the expert crafts- 
men have passed to the Spirit-land. The 
regalia and symbols of spiritual and tem- 
(Continued on page b, column 1 ) 



A KING HAS HIS DAY 
ON MEMBERS' NIGHT 

By JANE ROCKWELL 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 

IF IT WERE POSSIBLE, visitors might 
be tempted on the night of October 12 to 
trade places with the Cameroons king whose 
tribal home is the subject of an elaborate 
new exhibit in Hall E on the Ground Floor 
of the Museum and a featured attraction 
of Members' Night. 




AFRICAN ANCESTOR-FIGURES 
These dramatic wood-carvings are of great religious 
import to the inhabitants of the Cameroons Grass- 
lands in West Africa. The examples shown above 
now grace the house of a Cameroons king that has 
been erected in Hall E and will be opened for the 
first time on Members' Night. 

In the highly organized and often hectic 
society of today, an evening's visit to the 
home of the ruler of a village in the Cam- 
eroons Grasslands region of West Africa 
fifty years ago may offer a refreshing change 
of pace for the citizen of 1956. 

Unfettered by modern appliances and 
(Continued on page k, column 3) 



Page i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



October, 1956 



PACIFIC EXHIBITS- 

(Continued from page 3) 

poral power have been scattered among the 
museums of other peoples. The glory of the 
Stone Age has departed out of Polynesia. 

"The old net is full of holes, its meshes 
have rotted, and it has been laid aside. 

"What new net goes a-fishing?" 

The new net, or the changed plot of 
the tale told by the people of one 
Pacific island, is the subject of a recent 
motion-picture record of native life 
that will be presented on the screen of 
the James Simpson Theatre in the Mu- 
seum at 9:15 on Members' Night. 

The island called Kapingamarangi, whose 
life is documented in the film, is located in 
southern Micronesia. Studies made of the 
culture of this island in the past few years 
reveal a most interesting new net — a tale 
upon which no final curtain has fallen. The 
film will round out the story of life in the 
Pacific for Members' Night visitors who in 
the preceding two hours have made the 
grand tour of the Pacific via the Museum 
exhibits. 

Colorful Primitive Arts 

The cultures of the various Pacific island- 
groups have produced some of the most 
colorful and interesting creations to be found 
in any category of primitive art. As the 
result primarily of expeditions over many 
years, the Museum has assembled in Halls 
A (and A-l), G, and F (on the Ground Floor) 
some of the world's finest collections repre- 
senting almost all phases of Pacific cultures. 
New installations with fluorescent lighting 
and improved physical arrangement of the 
halls permit these exhibits to cast the true 
atmosphere of the many places represented 
— Saipan, Guam, the Carolines, New Brit- 
ain, New Ireland, Sumatra, Java, Australia 
and New Zealand, Samoa, the Philippines, 
Hawaii, the Solomons, New Hebrides, Mar- 
quesas, Borneo, New Guinea, and many 
others. For Members' Night the halls will 
be flooded with native music faithfully re- 
corded on tape among various Pacific peoples. 
Not only the exhibition halls but also the 
Pacific Research Laboratory will be open 
to visitors. Here the preparatory work for 
the refurbished exhibits was carried out 
under the direction of Evett D. Hester, 
assigned to this task under the Museum's 
Thomas J. Dee Fellowship in Anthropology. 
Mr. Hester and other members of the staff 
will be present to greet Members and their 
guests and to furnish information requested. 

Finest Melanesian Collection 

The most complete and superb collection 
of material from Melanesia ever brought 
together in any museum of the world is to 
be seen in the newly arranged Hall A. 
Ornaments, ritual objects, masks, and items 
of utilitarian nature form together an 
impressive array of material culture from 



one of the most interesting areas of Oceania. 
Most of the components of the collection 
were secured by the late Dr. Albert B. 
Lewis, Curator of Melanesian Ethnology 
from 1907 to 1940, who spent four years 
in the early 1900's as leader of the Joseph 
N. Field Expeditions to Melanesia. The 
unique elements of design found on weapons 
and ceremonial paraphernalia make Hall A 
one of the most colorful parts of the Mu- 
seum. The value of these specimens is 
especially enhanced by the fact that many 
are no longer available in the areas where 
they were collected. The native cultures 
that produced them no longer function with 
the aboriginal vigor of years past. More- 
over, many of the comparable collections in 
Europe were destroyed during World 
War II. 

Life of the Philippines 

Also in Hall A are the extensive collec- 
tions brought from the Philippines by Dr. 
Fay-Cooper Cole, formerly Assistant Cu- 
rator of Malayan Ethnology at the Museum 
and later a member of the faculty of the 
University of Chicago, retaining his Museum 
connection as Research Associate in Malay- 
an Ethnology. Dr. Cole's broad experi- 
ence in field research in Indonesia and in 
the Philippines resulted in a catalogue of 
data accompanying these specimens that is 
especially noteworthy. The Philippine ex- 
hibits are interspersed with life-size dioramas 
that take the viewer into a Luzon village 
where pottery is being manufactured and 
a native blacksmith is forging weapons and 
tools. Native textiles from the Philippine 
highlands and weapons from the head- 
hunters of the same region are among the 
outstanding exhibits. 

Indonesia Well Represented 

Hall G contains an enviable collection of 
materials from Indonesia. Among its at- 
tractions is an assemblage of the many kinds 
of strange musical instruments used by 
a Balinese orchestra to accompany the 
beautifully stylized dances of these people. 
There is also an exhibit of the dancers' 
masks. The complicated process of batik 
cloth manufacture is illustrated, and there 
is a miniature village of the Menangkabau 
people. The people of Indonesia are 
recognized as some of the world's most 
accomplished artisans and the products of 
their arts and crafts are lavishly displayed 
in full testament to their skills. 

Polynesia and Micronesia 

The massive sculptured heads of Easter 
Island in eastern Polynesia stand guard in 
Hall F where they flank the intricately 
carved Maori council house, one of only 
half a dozen or so still extant in the world 



today. The Easter Island heads have 
remained a mystery to professional anthro- 
pologists and laymen alike for many years. 
These enigmatic blocks of stone are rem- 
nants of a lost people. The brightly colored 
feather "kahili" from Hawaii and the simi- 
larly festive feather capes in adjoining cases 
show the painstaking and skillful efforts of 
native craftsmen whose watchword was 
certainly that this is indeed "a timeless 
world." War clubs from Fiji, fish nets and 
hooks from Hawaii, armor and shark's-tooth 
swords from the warlike inhabitants of the 
Gilbert Islands, and thousands of other 
items from Micronesia and Polynesia are 
displayed in this hall. 

Within the confines of a Bulletin it is 
possible to present only the sketchiest 
indication of the contents of these three 
great halls. Together they form a whole 
museum in themselves — a museum of many 
fascinating peoples and cultures that have 
flourished on the tiny isles that dot the 
vast Pacific. 



MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT 
Friday, October 12 



AFRICAN KING'S HOUSE- 

(Continued from page 3) 

gadgets, the royal house in the Cameroons 
is 30 feet high (including its thatched roof), 
15 feet wide, and 23 feet long. The entrance 
to the house is through two doorways on 
which human and animal figures are carved. 
Another feature of the king's house that may 
appeal to present-day dwellers is that when 
the king tires of his hut or when the birds, 
bats, and squirrels become too noisy or 
dirty in the hut's thatched roof, the king 
simply orders his servants to build another 
house — a task that takes little more than 
a week. The Museum's maintenance crew 
built our reconstruction of the King's House 
of plaster and steel because Museum 
building-rules require more durable material 
than the mud and latticed bamboo of the 
original in Africa. Another major change 
from the original is the inclusion of several 
viewing windows placed so that visitors may 
easily see the interior of the house. 

Patrons of the Arts 

Cameroons chieftains were patrons of the 
arts, and so their homes were repositories 
for the finest sculptures, charms, fetishes, 
and ancestor figures available. More than 
one hundred objects from the Museum's 
Cameroons collection — one of the finest in 
the world — were selected for the house. 
Royal stools equivalent to thrones, masks 
of religious and magical significance, cere- 
monial drums, tobacco pipes more than five 
feet long, a sleeping mat for the one of the 
king's many wives who was currently in 
favor, and the king's own bed, an elaborately 
carved object with a built-in wooden pillow. 

The events that go to make up a day in 
the life of a Cameroons king — from his early- 
morning fishing jaunt and bath in a nearby 



October, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



stream, his holding of court and other 
official duties, to an evening feast and dance 
in honor of a neighboring chieftain — are told 
in a booklet entitled The King's Day, 
written by Mrs. Margaret Plass of New 
York City and London. Mrs. Plass, who 
recently represented the Department of 
Ethnography of the British Museum at the 
Fifth Session of the International Congress 
of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 
at Philadelphia, served this Museum as 
a consultant in the planning of the new 
exhibit. Copies of the booklet, which con- 
tains photographs of some of the objects 
found in the King's House, will be given 
to visitors on Members' Night. 

In recreating the King's House and pre- 
senting the Museum's Cameroons specimens 
in their immediate physical context together 
with a written account of the life in that 
region of Africa, the Department of Anthro- 
pology has endeavored to provide Members' 
Night visitors, and later the general public, 
with a more illuminating view of the life of 
an African people than would have been 
possible by the exhibition of specimens 
alone. Phillip H. Lewis, an assistant in the 
Department of Anthropology, supervised 
the selection of specimens and installations. 

The Cameroons region in 1956 has 
markedly changed from what it was fifty 
years ago — there is a tendency to replace 
the thatch of the roofs with galvanized iron, 
the clay pots with kerosene tins, the ancient 
drums with modern phonographs, and the 
painted symbolic friezes on hut walls with 
travel posters and soft-drink advertisements. 
But on Members' Night visitors will see 
that the tranquil life of the Cameroons of 
fifty years ago has been preserved in the 
Museum's African exhibits. 



MOVIES FOR CHILDREN 
ON 8 SATURDAYS 

The Raymond Foundation will present 
its autumn series of free motion-picture 
programs for children on Saturday mornings 
during October and November. All pro- 
grams begin at 10:30 a.m. in the James 
Simpson Theatre of the Museum. No tick- 
ets are needed. Children are welcome to 
attend alone, accompanied by parents, or 
in groups from schools, clubs, or other 
centers. 

On four of the programs the explorers 
who made the films will be present to tell 
the story of their adventures. Following 
are titles and dates: 

October 6 — Alohaland 

The islands of Hawaii, their people and 

the natural wildlife 
Story by Fran William Hall 

October 13— A World Is Born 

A Disney color-picture on the first 2 bil- 



lion years of life on our earth 
Also a cartoon 

October 20 — Outdoor Almanac 

Year-round activities in nature 
Story by Karl H. Maslowski 

October 27 — Treasure Island 

A Disney interpretation of Robert Louis 
Stevenson's adventure story 

November 3 — Prehistoric Times 

Strange undersea life ; also dinosaurs, mam- 
moths, saber-tooth cats, and prehistoric 
hunters and artists 

Also a cartoon 

November 10 — Adventure in Africa 

A four-month and 10,000-mile safari 
Story by Murl Deusing 

November 17 — The Great Adventure 

Two boys' adventures on a Swedish farm 
(Arne Sucksdorff's. nature masterpiece) 

November 24 — 'Gatorland 

Into the cypress swamps of Dixieland 
Story by Allen Cruickshank 



MUSEUM MEMBERS INVITED 
TO VISIT LABS 









^ :"■■> 



The Museum's scientific staff will hold 
open house in the laboratories throughout 
the Departments of Anthropology, Botany, 
Geology and Zoology from 7 to 9 p.m. on 
Members' Night, October 12. The visitors 
will have opportunity to talk to curators 
engaged in many lines of research, and to 
view demonstrations of museum techniques 
in preparing material for exhibition and 
study. Illustration shows part of the 
ichthyological laboratory where Loren P. 
Woods, Curator of Fishes, and Assistant 
Pearl Sonoda find out more truly exciting 
things about finny creatures than those 
related in the wildest of sportsmen's yarns. 



AUDUBON SOCIETY OFFERS 
LECTURES AT MUSEUM 

On Sunday afternoons during the fall, 
winter, and spring the Illinois Audubon 
Society will present in the James Simpson 
Theatre of the Museum a series of five free 
lectures illustrated with color motion-pic- 
tures. The first is scheduled for October 14, 
when Patricia Bailey Witherspoon will give 
a screen-tour of "Kangaroo Continent." 

Other lectures to be given are: November 
18, "Cypress Kingdom," Alexander Sprunt, 
Jr.; January 27, "Ranch and Range," 
Albert Wool; March 10, "Great Smoky 
Skyland," G. Harrison Orians; and April 
28, "Little-Known New Jersey," George 
Ragensburg. Admission is free. Seats in 
the reserved section of the Theatre are 
available both to Members of the Audubon 
Society and Members of the Museum on 
presentation of membership card. 

Mrs. Witherspoon is the daughter of Dr. 
Alfred M. Bailey, Director of the Denver 
Museum of Natural History. Together 
they explored strange and fascinating Aus- 
tralia, where the ordinary is picturesque and 
the extraordinary is almost unbelievable. 
The films present the life of two of the 
world's strangest mammals — the duck- 
billed platypus and the spiny echidna, both 
of which lay eggs. Also shown are koalas, 
the originals for the famous Teddy bears, 
and of coarse kangaroos. Other scenes 
show a herd of fur-seals at Lady Julia Percy 
Island and birds, mammals, and plants of 
the North and South islands of New Zealand. 



STAFF NOTES 



MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT 
Friday, October 12 



Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, Curator of 
the Phanerogamic Herbarium, has been 
awarded a grant from the National Science 
Foundation to complete his work on a cata- 
logue of the plants of Missouri. He recently 
lectured on botanical subjects before the 
Kiwanis Club of Chicago, and the Danville 
(Illinois) Garden Club, and the Missouri 
Chapter of Nature Conservancy at St. 
Louis .... Dr. Austin L. Rand, Chief Cu- 
rator of Zoology, and Melvin A. Traylor, 
Jr., Assistant Curator of Birds, attended 
the meetings of the American Ornithologists' 
Union in Denver last month .... Loren P. 
Woods, Curator of Fishes, will leave in 
October for studies of tropical eastern 
Pacific fishes at Leland Stanford University, 
and the University of California at Los 
Angeles .... The staffs of the Departments 
of Anthropology and Zoology last month 
were hosts to many distinguished scientists 
from abroad who visited Chicago after 
attending congresses in Philadelphia and 
Montreal. Among the countries represented 
were Norway, Italy, Switzerland, the Soviet 
Union, Great Britain, Germany, Uruguay, 
and Brazil. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



October, 1956 



LECTURES ON SATURDAYS BEGIN OCTOBER 6 



WITHOUT LEAVING CHICAGO this 
fall you can spend a Saturday after- 
noon in the Canary Islands. Or you can 
thrill at the weird forms surrounding you 
as you sit comfortably at the bottom of the 
sea. You can join a safari and come face- 
to-face with Africa's lions and elephants in 
the wild. You can take an enchanted 
voyage among the isles of the Mediter- 
ranean or an exciting trip on rubber rafts 
down the canyon-bound tortuous Colorado 
River. 

These are some of the stay-at-home- 
travel opportunities offered in the .06th 
series of free lectures for adults. Illus- 



to the screen in vivid color by the films of 
Fran William Hall, one of the topflight 
naturalist-lecturers of the National Audubon 
Society. He proves that the wonders of 
nature can be just as exciting a few hundred 
miles from Chicago as in some exotic land 
half-way around the world. 

October 13 — The Canary Islands 

Robert Davis 

"A colorful archipelago of everlasting 
spring" is the way Robert Davis describes 
the Canaries, the island group lying some 
seventy-five miles off the northwest coast 
of Africa. As shown in our lecturer's color- 




MALTA-'THAT UNSINKABLE AIRCRAFT CARRIER' 
Herbert Knapp will show color films and tell the story of this and other Mediterranean isles in his lecture on 
November 17. Other lectures on travel and science will be given on Saturday afternoons throughout 

October and November. 



trated with color motion-pictures, the lec- 
tures will be presented at 2:30 o'clock on 
the eight Saturday afternoons during 
October and November in the James Simp- 
son Theatre of the Museum. The programs 
are provided by the Edward E. Ayer Lecture 
Foundation Fund. Admittance is restricted 
to adults because of limits of accommoda- 
tions, but children will have their own series 
of free motion-picture programs on the 
mornings of the same Saturdays under the 
auspices of the Raymond Foundation. 

A section of the Theatre seats for the 
adult lectures is reserved for Members of 
the Museum until 2:25 p.m. 

Following are the programs: 

October 6 — Minnesota 

Fran William Hall 

For the nature-lover and the sportsman 
few areas anywhere have as much to offer 
as "the land of 10,000 lakes" — Minnesota. 
The awe-inspiring scenic beauties, the in- 
finite variety of birds and other animals, the 
rich flora, and the vast forests are brought 



films, the islands greet the visitor with 
displays of flowers and luxuriant vegetation 
on mountain slopes that rise from a desert 
to snowcapped peaks as high as 12,000 feet. 
On the largest island, Tenerife, noted for 
its bananas and vineyards, are found the 
weird dragon-trees that are believed to live 
3,000 years but of which only a few now 
remain. On the island of Artenara a visit 
is made to a village of cave-dwellers. The 
islands, incidentally, were not named for 
the singing birds but from the Latin word 
canis for fierce dogs found there by ancient 
invaders (the birds were named for the 
islands). 

October 20 — Outdoor Almanac 

Karl Maslowski 

A sweeping panorama of nature's annual 
cycle of year-round activity is presented in 
the lecture and color films of Karl Maslow- 



MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT 
Friday, October 12 



ski, dramatic ace photographer and keen 
naturalist. In "Outdoor Almanac" the 
audience is permitted to follow in close 
intimacy the season-to-season life of a family 
of raccoons, a fawn deer growing to buck- 
hood, playful fox-cubs, bats, and humming- 
birds and also the life cycle of flowers and 
other plants. Just as our own lives and 
activities differ around the calendar, the 
changes that spring, summer, autumn, and 
winter bring to creatures and plants are 
revealed in Maslowski's unusual filmed 
document. 

October 27— Call of the Sea 

John D. Craig 

Many people may travel the world over, 
but few are privileged to see the bottom of 
the sea with its weird and mysterious forms 
of life. But now, through the daring of 
John D. Craig, author of Danger Is My 
Business, and by magic of underwater color- 
photography, all may share in the thrills of 
expert deepsea divers. Craig's film and 
lecture cover most aspects of sea-life. 
Record dives are made, shipwrecks are 
explored in their burial-places — freak fishes 
are found and whales are hunted. There 
is a ride on the back of a giant manta- 
ray and a game of tag with sea-elephants 
in the ocean depths. The audience will 
participate in the thrill of shooting a tre- 
mendous thirty-foot surf and roaming silent 
kelp forests deep in the blue water. 

November 3 — Thrills on the Colorado 

Julian Gromer 

Action of this film and story, as told by 
Gromer, begins with harnessing fifteen 
huskies to a sledge that takes to the trail 
from high in snow-covered mountains of 
Colorado. The journey along the Colorado 
River is picked up at the source in Rocky 
Mountain National Park, whence the river 
hurries on its way to Shadow Mountain 
and the Grand Lakes. At Hite, Utah, huge 
stacks of supplies are loaded aboard rubber 
rafts, and for the next two weeks the ex- 
ploring party is on the canyon-bound river 
where there is no turning back. Remote 
wonders are explored along the banks, and 
quicksands and rapids add to the thrills. 

November 10 — Adventure in Africa 

Murl Deusing 

The day-to-day activities of eleven lions 
in the wild on the Serengeti Plains, as 
recorded on color-film by Murl Deusing and 
his wife who lived near the animals for many 
days, are a feature of this lecture. Many 
other adventures are packed into this story 
of four months and 10,000 miles of safari in 
the African veld and jungle. The Deusings 
captured giraffes and zebras and recorded 
the seldom-heard voice of the giraffe. They 
faced charges of mad elephants and rhinos 
as they calmly kept their cameras grinding. 
They risked their lives making close-ups of 
poisonous puff adders and spitting cobras. 



October, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



November 17 — Mediterranean Isles 

Herbert Knapp 

Lodging with all meals included, from 65 
cents to 5 dollars a day, and potatoes at 
1 cent a pound! Yes, these are 1956 prices 
in the Paradise-like isle of Mallorca says 
Herbert Knapp, who brings color films of 
this and other islands that dot the blue of 
the Mediterranean. He describes Mal- 
lorca as a beauty spot that holds the answer 
for jaded nerves and battered budgets. His 
lecture and films take his audience also to 
Sicily, Corsica, Crete, Corfu, Rhodes, and 
Malta — some of them ancient, all of them 
garden spots of the modern world, and 
certain of them tension spots of history 
currently in the making. 

November 24 — River of the Crying Bird 

Allan Cruickshank 

In Florida a beautiful river flows south- 
ward to the sea. Called the Wakulla, an 
Indian word for "mysterious water," it is 
a river of the crying bird — where the 
limpkin wails a kind of music as truly 
Dixieland as that of Basin Street. It is this 
river with its many wildlife wonders that 
noted naturalist Allan Cruickshank has 
filmed in all its marvelous color. The river 
begins twenty miles south of Tallahassee and 
flows out into the Gulf of Mexico, with many 
of its miles bordered by a wilderness of 
cypress knees and moss-draped trees in- 
habited by the American egret, alligators, 
and the anhinga or snake-bird. 



COLLECTING IN THE BORNEO RAIN FORESTS 



RESERVED SEATS 

FOR MEMBERS 

No tickets are necessary for ad- 
mission to these lectures. A sec- 
tion of the Theatre is allocated to 
Members of the Museum, each of 
whom is entitled to two reserved 
seats. Requests for these seats 
should be made in advance by 
telephone (W Abash 2-9410) or in 
writing, and seats will be held in 
the Member's name until 2:25 
o'clock on the lecture day. 



Daily Guide Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered daily 
except Sundays under the title "Highlights 
of the Exhibits." These tours are designed 
to give a general idea of the entire Museum 
and its scope of activities. They begin at 
2 p.m. on Monday through Friday and at 
2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 

Special tours on subjects within the range 
of the Museum exhibits are available Mon- 
days through Fridays for parties of ten or 
more persons by advance request. 

Although there are no tours on Sundays, 
the Museum is open from 9 a.m. to 5 P.M. 



By ROBERT F. INGER 

CURATOR OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES 

THE BORNEO Zoological Expedition of 
1956 ceased operations in the field on 
August 20. On that day the last boxes were 
locked and banded, the last cans soldered 
shut, and the whole shipment turned over 
to a steamship company in Kuching, Sara- 
wak. I had spent the five preceding months 
in North Borneo and Sarawak (both British 
colonies) collecting frogs and toads, lizards, 
snakes, turtles, fresh-water fishes, and mam- 
mals. In that time about 40 snakes, 200 
lizards, 1,000 frogs and toads, and several 
thousand fishes were obtained. 

One of the aims of the expedition was to 
learn as much as possible about the lives of 
the animals. What are their relations with 
one another? What do they eat? Exactly 
what sorts of places do they live in? At 
what times are they active? To answer such 
questions a great many kinds of observa- 
tions are needed. Therefore the notebooks 
that were filled are as important as the 
specimens collected. Detailed information 
on the habitat of each animal, notes on food 
and activities, des- 
criptions of the areas 
worked, and observa- 
tions on weather were 
all recorded. 

For the weather- 
conscious readers of 
the Bulletin, the 
weather in Borneo was 
fine. Perhaps it was 
a little damp, but not 
excessively so. The 
average rainfall dur- 
ing my stay there was 
6 inches per month. 
At midafternoon the 
temperature usually 
reached 85 to 95 de- 
grees but fell to 80 or 
below by 9 p.m., with 
a low of 70 to 75 in 
the early morning 
hours. The relative 
humidity was rather 
high. At 6 a.m. it was 

90 to 95 per cent, dropping to 50 to 70 per 
cent at midday and climbing to 90 to 95 
per cent by nightfall. 

Two of the field bases were in eastern 
North Borneo approximately 100 miles from 
the bases used by the Borneo Zoological 
Expedition of 1950, of which I was a mem- 
ber. Study of the material obtained in 1950 
pointed to the necessity of working in the 
areas chosen this year. But, had it not been 
for a revolution in communications in the 
intervening six years, these bases could not 



have been reached. In 1950 no boats were 
available for transportation up rivers, in 
contrast to present availability. In fact, far 
in the interior of Sarawak so many of the 
Dyaks now have outboard motors that the 
river sounds like one of our own summer 
resorts. 

Since there are many tribes of natives in 
Borneo, the people I employed varied from 
one field base to the next. For example, in 
North Borneo people known as Dusuns 
worked for me. At Matang, Sarawak, my 
assistants were Land Dyaks, while up the 
Rejang River in Sarawak they were Sea 
Dyaks (more properly known as Ibans). 
Though each tribe has its own language, 
most of the people speak Malay. If 
a stranger (like myself) works alone in 
Borneo, he must conduct his business in 
Malay. Fortunately it is a relatively easy 
language to learn. 

The second zoological expedition to Borneo 
was, if anything, more interesting than the 
first. The advantages of working in a par- 
ticular area twice can scarcely be over- 
estimated. Indeed Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, 




MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT 
Friday, October 12 



FIELD LABORATORY IN BORNEO 

Expedition camp is a place for skinning, tagging, and preserving specimens and 

for writing copious notes as well as for sleeping and eating. The working day 

of Dr. Robert F. Inger and his Iban assistant, Gaun, often ran to 16 hours. 



who was Chief Curator of Zoology until 
1940, was so impressed with this fact 
that he coined an aphorism that the staff 
of the Department of Zoology swears by: 
"Never go anywhere for the first time." 

Any region of tropical rain forest is so rich 
from the biologist's point of view that one's 
first trip to a place like Borneo passes in 
a kaleidoscope of sights, sounds, and smells. 
The luxuriance of the vegetation and the 
wealth of animal types are almost over- 
whelming. It is literally a case of not being 
able to see the forest for the trees. But, 
given several years in which to digest the 
experiences and to study the specimens 
(Continued on page 8, column 3) 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



October, 1956 



INTERNATIONAL WEEK- 

(Continued from page 2) 
material received in exchange last year in 
the Department of Zoology includes the 
names of institutions in England, Kenya 
Colony, India, Israel, Belgium, Buenos 
Aires, Mexico, Durban, Netherlands, Philip- 
pine Islands, and Pennsylvania. 

Hundreds of natural-science publications 
are received throughout the year on an 
exchange basis by the Museum's Library. 
While wars and depressions temporarily 
curtail and sometimes halt exchange activi- 
ties, the hunger for scientific knowledge 
goes on unappeased. Recently exchange 
relations with four countries behind the 
iron curtain — the USSR itself and Czecho- 
slovakia, Poland, and Austria — were re- 
established, and others soon may follow. 
Our Museum, through exchange with in- 
stitutions and individuals last year, distri- 
buted 12,737 copies of its own publications. 
This year the number is likely to increase. 

In the Museum the hall that most typifies 
the spirit of International Museum Week 
is the Hall of the Races of Mankind (Chaun- 



MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT 
Friday, October 12 



cey Keep Memorial Hall, Hall 3) where 
a series of 96 bronze and four stone sculp- 
tures illustrates representative types of 
living races of man. The sculptures, 
modeled from life by Malvina Hoffman, 
are arranged in geographical order by 
continents: the west end of the hall shows 
the races of Africa and Oceania, the octag- 
onal section in the center of the hall the 
races of Europe and America, and the east 
end the races of Asia. In the center of the 
octagon the bronze group entitled "Unity 
of Mankind" presents life-size figures that 
represent at their highest development the 
black, white, and yellow races, together 
supporting the world. 

At a time when increased communication 
knits all countries closer together, the mu- 
seums of the world have a unique opportu- 
nity to promote, through educational means, 
understanding among peoples and nations. 

— J. R. 



DINOSAUR EXCURSION 




Those successfully participating in eight 
Museum Journeys can become official 
"Museum Adventurers." Under the direc- 
tion of the Raymond Foundation, journeys 
showing Africa, China, Animals Around the 
World, Toys, and Bible Plants, and a Post- 
age-Stamp Safari have been given since the 
program began early last year. 



Winter Visiting Hours to Begin 

Winter visiting hours, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., 
will go into effect at the Museum on October 
15. Sunday hours: 9 A.M.-5 p.m. 



Pausing on the first lap of their journey 
to "Dinosaur Land" in the Museum, these 
two youngsters in Stanley Field Hall gaze 
upward at Gorgosaurus (a meat-eating 
dinosaur of some 75 million years ago), 
which seems about to devour his prey, 
Lambeosaurus, a plant-eating contempo- 
rary. 

Boys and girls can visit Dinosaur Land 
(Museum Journey No. 7) any day during 
October and November within regular Mu- 
seum visiting hours. Travel instructions 
and questions about the various dinosaurs 
seen on the Museum Journey will be given 
to children upon request at the Museum's 
north and south entrances. Youngsters 
who satisfactorily complete the Dinosaur- 
Land questionnaire and those of three other 
Museum Journeys can become "Museum 
Travelers" and receive a special award. 



NEW MEMBERS 

(August 16 to September 14) 

Associate Members 

Robert Buehler, Mrs. Edmund L. Burke, 
Sheridan Gallagher, Mrs. Spencer R. Keare, 
Thomas W. McCloud, Miss Elizabeth W. 
Morgan 

Annual Members 

L. R. Austin, Benjamin Baldwin, Carl E. 
Betz, Sidney Buchbinder, James O. Burke, 
Miss Jessie Churan, John J. Coffey, Jr., 
J. Robert Coffield, Miss Charlotte A. Cole- 
grove, Robert A. Crawford, F. Schuyler 
Dauwalter, Philip G. Duff, Mrs. Daisy 
Earley, Sampson Esko, Nelson C. George, 
Gilbert T. Graham, Harold Graham, John 
E. Grice, Howard G. Haas, Robert Insley, 
Robert H. Lodge, Philip W. Lotz, L. G. 
McKnight, Laurence W. Morgan, Dwight 
Nicholson, George Radford, Eugene F. 
Ryan, Arthur J. Schiller, Charles I. 
Schneider, Richard A. Staat, Philip F. Staf- 
ford, Mrs. Dorothy J. Steitz, Dr. Graham 
A. Vance, John J. Weber, George B. Young 



BORNEO EXPEDITION- 

{Continued from page 7) 
collected and the observations recorded, one 
is mentally prepared for a second expedition. 
And generally during the second trip one's 
original impressions are sifted, clarified, and 
expanded so that a clearer picture of this 
terribly complex environment begins to 
emerge. 

Yet the work is far from over. The new 
collections must be studied, the new obser- 
vations analyzed, and an attempt made to 
integrate the new information with the old. 
Even then the important goal of under- 
standing the tropical rain forest will not have 
been achieved. The staff of Chicago Natural 
History Museum is too small for that ambi- 
tion. What we do expect, however, is that 
the Museum will have made a contribution 
toward that goal. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of principal gifts re- 
ceived during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology: 

From: Theodore J. Shapas, Dolton, 111. 
— Late Woodland pottery vessel 

Department of Botany: 

From: Dr. John W. Thieret, Homewood, 
111. — 45 cultivated plants; U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, Beltsville, Md. — photo- 
graph of Dutch-elm-diseased tree; Uni- 
versity of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark. 
— Draba verna, Missouri; Karl Bartel, Blue 
Island, 111. — 5 plants; Bill Bauer, Imperial, 
Mo. — Centaurium texense; Holly Reed Ben- 
nett, Chicago — 944 herbarium specimens, 
Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Montana; Dr. 
Henry Field, Coconut Grove, Fla. — 4 fungi, 
Massachusetts; Forest Department, Colony 
of North Borneo — 188 specimens of Diptero- 
carpaceae; Dr. Duane Isely, Ames, Iowa — 
3 prints of Mimosa horridula type; Dr. E. 
L. Keithahm, Juneau, Alaska — Dodecatheon 
Jeffreyi; New York Botanical Garden — 
50 Rubiaceae, South America; Dr. Earl E. 
Sherff, Hastings, Mich. — 512 plants, Hawaii 
and Europe; Mrs. L. F. Yutema, Wads- 
worth, 111. — 2 plants; Emil Sella, Chicago — 
2 Solanum rostratum; Jesse Strauss, Glencoe, 
111. — Ornithogalum umbellatum. 

Department of Geology: 

From: Albert W. Tucker Estate, Daytona 
Beach, Fla. — mineral collection 

Department of Zoology: 

From:Bernard Benesh, Burrville, Tenn. 
— 32 insects; Charles M. Bogert, New York 
— 2 salamanders, lizard, Mexico; Chicago 
Zoological Society, Brookfield, 111. — bird 
skeleton, Antarctica; Dr. Gordon M. Clark, 
College Park, Md. — 2 paratypes of bird 
mite; General Biological Supply House, 
Chicago — 8 caecilians; William J. Gerhard, 
Chicago — 786 U. S. Hemiptera-Homoptera 
(true bugs), United States; Arthur M. 
Greenhall, Trinidad — fish specimen; Dr. 
Arnold B. Grobman, Gainesville, Fla. — 
2 salamanders, Virginia; C. E. Heether, 
Skokie, 111. — fresh-water clam; Harry Hoog- 
straal, Cairo, Egypt — 144 birdskins, 37 
frogs, 40 lizards, 8 snakes, 6 turtles 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



November, 1956 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery Hughston M. McBain 

Wii. Mccormick Blair William H. Mitchell 

Walther Buchen John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Walter J. Cummings Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

Samuel Insull, Jr. John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Hughston M. McBain Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L- Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. Mac Minn- Jane Rockwell 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



FRANK V. GREGG MEMORIAL 

In memory of Commander Frank V. 
Gregg, United States Navy, employees of 
the Museum have established a permanent 
memorial fund at the Museum. Com- 
mander Gregg, son of Dr. Clifford C. Gregg, 
Director of the Museum, was killed in an 
automobile accident early in September. 



A CURATOR REVIEWS BOOK 
BY HIS CHIEF— FRANKLY 

AMERICANWATERANDGAMEBIRDS. 

By Austin L. Rand.* 239 pages, including 
127 full color plates; 75 other illustrations. 
E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., New 
York, 1956. $11.50. 

In earlier years a richly illustrated and 
obviously costly book such as this could 
have been published only as a special 
limited edition intended for that segment 
of the population sometimes facetiously 
referred to as the "carriage trade." Even 
today, when pretentious bird-books for the 
general public have become almost common- 
place, American Water and Game Birds 
stands out as the most impressive production 
of the year. 

On closer and more critical examination, 



* Chief Curator of Zoology, Chicago Natural History 
Museum. 



the result of Dr. Rand's latest excursion 
into the realm of popular bird-literature 
proves to have a dual character of varying 
excellence. In a sense, American Water 
and Game Birds is fundamentally an eye- 
catching collection of bird portraits, more 
than one hundred in natural color, supported 
by a text of considerable length. Both 
elements, the illustrations and the printed 
word, are essential to the whole, but perhaps 
are best considered separately, since of 
unequal merit. 

The superior organization of the book as 
a whole is at once evident. In an intro- 
duction of some 8,000 words Rand defines 
the scope of his subject, touches upon mat- 
ters of conservation, and indicates the value 
— both aesthetic and economic — of our 
American heritage in water birds and upland 
game birds. In brief, these conspicuous 
elements of our wildlife are brought into 
pleasing focus, preparatory to elaborating 
on the several component species. 

AREAS WHERE BIRDS THRONG 

Much of the introduction is devoted quite 
effectively to a descriptive survey of the 
areas and localities most noted for their 
great concentrations of birdlife. Here one 
learns with pleasure that, even today, 
phenomenally favored localities exist 
throughout the nation, several being within 
easy distance of our most congested centers 
of population. This section shows the 
author at his best, since he obviously is both 
personally familiar with the areas discussed 
and well qualified to serve as the reader's 
guide to their wildfowl. 

Each of the thirty-five chapters succeed- 
ing the introduction is devoted to a single 
family of birds, arranged in standard 
sequence from loons to pigeons and doves. 
A general account of the family and its 
more notable characteristics is followed by 
an informative account of the American 
species. Here, in the aggregate, is to be 
found a truly impressive array of pertinent 
facts relating to distribution, habitat, mi- 
gration, food, behavior, and other aspects 
of avian biology. Technicalities are largely 
avoided, the author successfully presenting 
his material in a style that is at once lucid 
and scholarly. He will be read with pleasure 
and profit by the ornithologist, the casual 
bird-watcher, and the sportsman. 

American Water and Game Birds, un- 
fortunately, is less successful as a collec- 
tion of bird portraits. Although profusely 
illustrated with the handiwork of an artist 
of distinction and of several leading wildlife 
photographers, the assemblage of illustra- 
tions leaves much to be disired. 

MANY COLOR PLATES 

The color plates, especially — and there 
are 127 of these — are of very uneven dis- 
tinction. Some of the pictures are strikingly 
beautiful and in every way superior. But 
others, and they are in the majority, can 



■THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



A royal bedchamber is shown on 
our cover. It is part of the full- 
size one-room "palace" of an 
African tribal king placed on ex- 
hibition in Hall E last month. 
The royal residence is furnished 
from the Museum's Cameroons 
collections which have been pro- 
nounced the finest and most ex- 
tensive in the world. The carved 
wooden couch with zebra-striped 
blanket was exclusively the king's. 
This bed was forbidden to all of 
his 86 wives under the threat that 
it had magical power to make 
them barren. The wife sum- 
moned as favorite of the day oc- 
cupied the mat with pillow on the 
floor. At the left end of the shelf 
over the bed is one of the king's 
crowns; the receptacles on the 
shelf held the bones of revered 
ancestors. This entire exhibit was 
prepared by Phillip H. Lewis and 
other members of the Museum 
staff in consultation with Mrs. 
Webster Plass of New York and 
London, volunteer keeper in the 
Department of Ethnography of 
the British Museum. Mrs. Plass 
painted some of the murals simu- 
lating native art. 



best be described as merely adequate. A 
few are decidedly inferior. Indeed, a crit- 
ical viewer might strongly suspect that 
certain of the color plates portray mounted 
birds photographed in staged surroundings. 
The color reproduction is often faulty, 
although in many instances this doubtless 
could have been corrected by known tech- 
nical means. It is unfortunate that the 
publishers apparently made less than 
a conscientious effort to obtain the very best 
of the many good color-photographs that 
have been taken of these birds. 

A series of 35 bird silhouettes, by Ugo 
Mochi, serves as chapter headings and is 
perhaps the most pleasing pictorial feature 
of the book. It is further illustrated by 40 
black-and-white photographs that are rou- 
tinely adequate and occasionally superior. 

Although falling somewhat short of its 
promise, American Water and Game Birds 
nevertheless has a place in every bird 
library. In the opinion of this reviewer it is 
superior, both in text and in its illustrations, 
to the companion volume Land Birds of 
America, published in 1953. With the 
appearance of this book Dr. Rand takes 
a long stride forward in becoming as well 
known to the general bird-watcher as he 
long has been to the scientific world. 

Emmet R. Blake 
Curator of Birds 



November, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 3 



WELWITSCHIA, LIVING FOSSIL OF SOUTH AFRICAN DESERT 



By THEODOR JUST 

CHIEF CURATOR OF BOTANY 

DESCRIBED AS A TREE that isn't 
a tree and likened in appearance to an 
enormous woody carrot or turnip or giant 
octopus, Welwitschia mirabilis Hooker f. 
occupies indeed a unique place among living 
and fossil plants. Originally placed in the 
family Gnetaceae, the highest family of the 
gymnosperms (plants whose seeds are not 
enclosed in a special ovary), Welwitschia is 




Drawing by Samuel H. Grove, Jr. 

WHERE IT'S FOUND 
Map shows known distribution of Welwitschia mira- 
bilis, extending along Atlantic coast of Africa from 
Portuguese colony of Angola to Southwest Africa. 
The plant was discovered in 1860 near Cape Negro, 
Angola, by Dr. Friedrich Welwitsch. 

now regarded as the sole representative of 
a new family, Welwitschiaceae. This assign- 
ment is based on new knowledge pertaining 
to this plant as well as other gymnosperms, 
both living and extinct. 

Exploration of the coastal area extending 
from Angola to South Africa has disclosed 
a number of new and, in some cases, differ- 
ent localities where Welwitschia occurs (see 
accompanying map). Thus the total area 
of its known distribution covers about 700 
miles of desert near the coast and projects 



* Ten years ago Chicago Natural History Museum 
installed a habitat group in Martin A. and Carrie 
Ryerson Hall (Hall 29, Hall of Plant Life) showing 
several specimens of Welwitschia mirabilis that had 
been collected in the Mossamedes desert (Angola) by 
Professor Henri Humbert of Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. For details see Bulle- 
tin, November-December 1946. 



inland for about 100 miles into the Kaoko- 
veld. These inland habitats are semidesert 
and have an annual rainfall of several inches, 
whereas in the coastal belt welwitschia 
plants depend largely on nightly fog or on 
dew for their water supply. Welwitschia 
plants tend to grow in dried-up river beds 
and depressions because their seeds are 
believed to have been washed ashore and 
germinated there. With equally good reason 
it has recently been suggested that the dry 
winged seeds may have been transported by 
wind and left in these depressed and rela- 
tively protected spots. 

GERMINATION EXPERIMENTS SUCCESSFUL 

The life-history of Welwitschia is also 
better known now. The plants are dioecious 
(with male and female flowers appearing on 
different plants) and are pollinated by the 
brown-red insect Odontopus sexpunctatus 
(a hemipteron belonging to the family 
Pyrrhocoridae). However, it is not known 
whether this insect is the only pollinating 
agent and whether insect-pollination is 
obligatory. After many failures welwitschia 
plants can now be grown in greenhouses and 
carried from seed to maturity. Experiments 
at Montreal Botanical Garden were success- 
ful and a male plant was brought to flower 
after thirteen years. Similar experiments 
at the Botanical Garden in Stellenbosch 
were equally successful where a female 
plant was brought to 
flower after 25 years 
and set seeds after 
having been hand-pol- 
linated. Male and fe- 
male cones appear 
about the same time 
(January) and seeds 
ripen in May. The 
nightly fogs in the 
natural habitat cause 
the seeds to germinate 
immediately. How- 
ever, some seeds fail 
to germinate because 
they are infected by 
a fungus that fills 
them with black 
spores. Fortunately 
the fungus is still quite 
restricted in occur- 
rence, and Welwitschia 
is not in immediate 
danger of becoming 
extinct. Grazing by 
sheep in the Kaoko- 

veld, about 100 miles from the coast, has 
also been reported as a serious local threat 
to the plants. The leathery fibrous leaves 
containing numerous sclereids full of calcium 
oxalate crystals must be a rough diet even 
for sheep, unless serious drought prevails. 

Measurements taken of cultivated speci- 
mens indicate that old plants, such as the 



female plant shown in the Museum exhibit, 
may be hundreds of years old and possibly 
more than a thousand. Because the plants 
lack growth rings comparable to those of 
our native trees, welwitschia plants can be 
regarded as old, but their age cannot be 
determined by any standard methods. 

Comparison of the two seed leaves (coty- 
ledons) with the two large permanent leaves, 
situated at right angles to the former, shows 
that these organs have the same venation 
pattern, a condition not known in other 
gymnosperms. Further fundamental dif- 
ferences separating Welwitschia from its 
former associates are as follows: The struc- 
ture of the wood of Welwitschia approaches 
in certain respects that of its former associ- 
ates and in other respects approaches that 
of palms and other flowering plants. The 
reproductive structures are quite unlike 
those of most gymnosperms with the ex- 
ception of those of the fossil cycads (cy- 
cadeoids). Welwitschia also differs from 
the majority of gymnosperms by its complex 
type of stomatal apparatus (the minute 
pores and adjacent cells found on leaves and 
other organs through which plants carry on 
gaseous exchange with their environment). 
Among living plants only Welwitschia and 
its former associate Gnetum (tropical clim- 
bers and trees) have this type of stomatal 
apparatus, whereas among fossil plants only 
the fossil cycads (cycadeoids) possess it. 




PART OF EXHIBIT IN MUSEUM 
Closeup of the large female plant of Welwitschia mirabilis, as shown in 
Martin A. and Carrie Ryerson Hall (Hall 29— Plant Life). This trunk is 46 
inches across its greatest diameter. Exhibit shows reproductive organs (cones) 
and the two large permanent leaves that continue to grow from the base, and 
tear from the opposite end. Plant may live hundreds of years. 



Thus in these two very important charac- 
teristics Welwitschia approaches the fossil 
cycads and differs profoundly from other 
gymnosperms. 

OTHER DIFFERENCES 

In addition, Welwitschia has a different 
arrangement of vascular elements and 



Page U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



November, 1956 



lacks an apex (growing point) after the 
seedling stage, resulting in a closed system 
of growth, a condition unique among higher 
plants and the immediate cause of its failure 
to grow in height. In fact, WelwiUchia has 



witschia with certain groups of fossil plants, 
especially the fossil cycads, document its 
isolated position among living plants and 
entitle us to regard it as a living fossil. 







t^t 



IH 



COLLECTOR OF MUSEUM'S SPECIMENS 

Professor Henri Humbert of the Museum National 

d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, standing in Mossa- 

medes Desert of Angola where he collected Wel- 

witschia plants shown in the Museum's exhibit. 

been aptly described as "a seedling whose 
apical growth has been arrested." In this 
respect, Welwitschia has no counterpart in 
the plant kingdom. Another striking 
character is represented by the rather large 
number of chromosomes (carriers of heredi- 
tary characteristics or genes). The somatic 
(diploid) number of chromosomes in Wel- 
witschia is 42, among the highest reported 
from gymnosperms. In one instance the 
count was 84, suggesting that the particular 
plant was a tetraploid, carrying four sets 
of the haploid number (21) of chromosomes. 
Finally, Welwitschia apparently possesses 
sex-determining chromosomes operating in 
the same manner as those of the well-known 



I HIIMUI I NHI I IH 




WELWITSCHIA POSTAGE STAMP 

An issue of the South African government. From 

the private collection of Dr. John W. Thieret. 

fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, classic ex- 
perimental animal of modern genetics. 

A recent report that fossil pollen of Wel- 
witschia has been found in Tertiary deposits 
of Russia remains to be verified. No other 
fossil material referable to this genus has 
come to light. But the many important 
structural characteristics shared by Wei- 



TRAILING A LOST TRIBE 
OF CENTURIES AGO 

By PAUL S. MARTIN 

CHIEF CURATOR OF ANTHROPOLOGY 

THE Museum's Southwest Archaeologi- 
cal Expedition of 1956 spent most of the 
summer preparing a new camp in Arizona 
and moving into it. A small house that will 
serve as our archaeological research station 
and headquarters for the next decade was 
purchased in the town of Vernon. Repairs 
and interior modifications of the house were 
made and a small unit for bunkhouse and 
storeroom was built. A small addition for 
darkroom, food storage, and laboratory will 
be constructed next season. All gear and 
equipment from our old headquarters in 
New Mexico were moved to the new camp. 
An archaeologist must be a Jack-of-all- 
trades and able to do carpentering, wiring, 
plumbing, concrete work, and the like. We 
also learned about well-drilling. 

ANCIENT SITES SURVEYED 

After headquarters were partly organized, 
we started our survey work — that is the 
search for sites or ancient homesteads of the 
Indians who lived there many centuries ago. 
The region investigated occupies a portion 
of the Colorado plateau and embraces part 
of the Little Colorado drainage. It is near 
the foothills of the White Mountains. The 
area is semiarid and volcanic in origin. 
Volcanic features such as cinder cones, about 
500 to 1,000 feet in height, and small 
volcanic dikes are the most prominent 
features. The elevation above sea level 
ranges from 4,500 feet to 10,000, the average 
elevation being about 7,000 feet. 

Our search for sites was carried on in 
a methodical manner. We first visited all 
ranchers, collectors, and local archaeologists, 
some of whom gave us definite leads to sites 
they knew. 

Then, by truck and on foot, we branched 
out farther and farther on our own to 
determine in a broad manner the cultural 
sequence of the region (750 square miles). 

By these means we found more than 100 
sites and became aware of about 300 more. 
We took detailed notes on each ruin that 
interested us, trying not to duplicate similar 
types of sites. The notes include such 
information as location with reference to 
roads, land boundaries, and other per- 
manent landmarks, the closest water supply, 
size of village area, surrounding flora and 
topography, the number of rooms or houses, 
and the kinds of pottery and tools of stone. 
A collection of sherds from each site was 
made and shipped to the Museum for anal- 
ysis and study. No digging at all was done 
this season because all available time was 



devoted to reconnaisance and research. 

During the fifteen previous seasons of 
work in New Mexico we had been fortunate 
in discovering a sequence of civilization — 
the Mogollon — some 4,000 to 5,000 years 
in length. This long unbroken sequence is 
one of very few in the Southwest compar- 
able in length and detail. The data obtained 
are of inestimable value in studying the rise 
and fall of civilizations and in other studies. 

TRAILING VANISHED INDIANS 

However, "our" Mogollon Indians, aban- 
doned the Reserve-Pine Lawn area about 
A.D. 1350. Where they went and why was 
unknown. We felt that our researches 
would be reinforced and of greater impor- 
tance if we could find the heirs of the 
Mogollon culture. 

Preliminary research caused us to think 
that the Mogollones moved north and 
westward into the country comprising the 
headwaters of the Little Colorado River 
and its tributaries. 

Accordingly, we pulled up stakes and 
planted ourselves more or less in the middle 
of this region, which, incidentally, is almost 
virgin territory as far as archaeological 
work is concerned. 

The earliest evidences of man found this 
season occur on the higher, ancient beaches 
of now extinct lakes. These sites were 
ancient camps and flint factories. They 
yielded stone tools and remains of old fire 
pits — but no pottery. We think these 
evidences of habitation are fairly old — 
perhaps 2,000 to 4,000 years or even more. 

The next-younger sites are pit-house 
villages, on the surfaces of which were 
picked up pottery fragments and tools of 
stone. These villages we would guess to be 
about 1,200 to 2,000 years old. 

The larger sites, as revealed solely by 
the pottery fragments picked up, became 
larger and more grandiose. Pottery became 
fancier and there are many more kinds. 
Some of the villages contain a hundred 
rooms or more and cover several acres. 

The significance of all of this is that we 
are now certain that the Pine Lawn peoples 
did move into this area, beginning perhaps 
about A.D. 700-900. One of the fancy 
pottery types that we picked up is related 
to types made by the Hopi Indians in 
historic times (since 1540), and another is 
clearly related to a pottery made by the 
Zuni Indians, also in historic times. 

Hence we have a kind of "lady or the 
tiger" problem. Which people are the heirs 
of the Mogollon culture or many of its com- 
ponents — the Hopi or the Zuni Indians — or 
are both of them Mogollon heirs? We are 
getting closer to the solution of our problem, 
"What became of the Mogollon people?" 

The expedition staff included Dr. John 
Rinaldo, Assistant Curator of Archaeology, 
Mrs. Martha Perry, Charles Lewis, Roland 
Strassburger, Douglas Keney, and George 
Dunham. 



November, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



STAFF NOTES 



MEMBERS' NIGHT DRAWS A RECORD ATTENDANCE 



John R. Millar, Deputy Director, and 
Miss Miriam Wood, Chief of the Raymond 
Foundation, attended the Midwest Mu- 
seums Conference at St. Louis, October 
18-20. Miss Wood addressed the conference 
on "The Schools Come to the Museum." 
.... Bruce Erickson has been appointed 
as a preparator of fossils in the Department 
of Geology. He replaces Cameron Gifford 
who has left for graduate studies at Harvard 
University .... Miss Eugenia Bernoff has 
been appointed Reference Librarian, to 
replace Mrs. Samuel H. (Donna) Grove, 
Jr., who has resigned. Miss Bernoff, who 
attended Wright Junior College and the 
University of Chicago, was formerly em- 
ployed by the Encyclopaedia Britannica .... 
Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, Curator Emeritus of 
Zoology, attended the meetings of the 
National Science Foundation in Washington, 
D.C., October 19-20. Dr. Schmidt and 
Dr. Robert F. Inger, Curator of Amphi- 
bians and Reptiles, participated in the 
Midwest Symposium on Systematic Biology 
in St. Louis, October 26-27. 



KOREA PRESENTS PICTURE 
OF TYPICAL WOMAN 

Korea is again represented in the physical 
anthropology exhibits in Chauncey Keep 
Memorial Hall of the Museum (Hall 3, 
Races of Mankind). From last March until 
October there had been a blank space among 
the illuminated transparent color-pictures 
of racial types of the world. The photo- 




KOREAN BEAUTY GRACES MUSEUM 
Portrait of typical young woman of Seoul is presented 
to Museum by Mrs. Dorothy Stone Mills and Dr. 
Paul Chung representing Korean-American Friend- 
ship Association of Chicago. In center is Dr. Paul 
S. Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology. 

graph of two women that formerly occupied 
this place had been removed on the request 
of Korean government officials who declared 
that the exhibit was not typical of the 
women of the Republic of Korea. 

The new picture, supplied through Korean 
government channels, is a portrait of Miss 



"Good heavens! I didn't realize that all 
this went on upstairs in the Museum!" 

This exclamation of surprise was echoed 
many times over on Members' Night by 
guests as they explored the far reaches of 
the Museum on visits to offices, workshops, 
and laboratories normally closed to the 
public. Nearly 1,400 persons were present 
at this year's event, October 12, the most 
successful of the six Members' Nights since 
1951. Host this year was the Department 
of Anthropology. The main attractions of 
the evening were the preview of a new 
permanent exhibit, the African King's 
House, and three newly reinstalled halls 
embracing the principal island-groups of the 
Pacific: Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, 
Indonesia, and the Philippines. The annual 
affair closed with a film program in the 
James Simpson Theatre. 

Sharing the spotlight with the featured 



Staff members were on hand to discuss their 
research and exhibition projects and to show 
new collections received at the Museum 
during the past year. Many visitors were 
surprised to learn that the specimens in the 
exhibition halls form only a small part of 
the total collections housed in the Museum 
for study purposes. 

Mrs. Webster Plass, of New York and 
London, who served as consultant in the 
planning of the African King's House ex- 
hibit, was present to tell visitors about the 
house and its furnishings. A booklet, The 
King's Day, a story written for the occasion 
by Mrs. Plass describing the life of a chief- 
tain who might have occupied the mud and 
thatch hut of the exhibit, was distributed 
to Members and their friends during the 
evening. 

After a welcoming address by Dr. Clifford 
C. Gregg, Director, and a brief talk by Dr. 




MEMBERS' NIGHT GROUP 'BEHIND THE SCENES' 
Dioramist Alfred Lee Rowell demonstrates for Museum guests steps in making miniature restoration of an 
ancient scene. The exhibit in preparation will show a group of Mayas dedicating a new stela to their gods 

(Mexico, circa A.D. 760). 



events of the evening were the tours of the 
Museum, behind-the-scenes, where the 
actual research and preparation of exhibits 
are done by scientists, technicians, editors, 
librarians, and other Museum personnel. 



Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of Anthro- 
pology, a film Kapingamarangi, narrated 
by Roland W. Force, Curator of Oceanic 
Archaeology and Ethnology, was shown in 
the James Simpson Theatre. 



Mi-hee Yang, a 25-year-old resident of 
Seoul, who is shown wearing the traditional 
holiday-type of dress of her country. 

A formal presentation of the picture to 
the Museum was made on October 2. Dr. 
Clifford C. Gregg, Director, accepted it on 
behalf of the Museum from Dr. Paul Chung 
and Mrs. Dorothy Stone Mills, who repre- 
sented the Korean-American Friendship 
Association of Chicago. 



'Thunderbolts' of Tibet 

Tibetan "thunderbolts" with which to 
invoke the wrath of heaven are on exhibition 
in Hall 32 (West Gallery). These are em- 
blems of the god Indra, made of bronze 
in a form symbolizing lightning strokes. 
With a bell in the left hand and one of these 
thunderbolts in the right, Tibetan lamas 
call for the destruction of demons and 
opponents of Buddhism. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



November, 1956 



KEY TO PAST SOUGHT IN LOUISIANA BAYOUS 



By EUGENE S. RICHARDSON, Jr. 
and RAINER ZANGERL* 

HERE IN THE MUSEUM when we 
speak of Mecca we are alluding not to 
the home of the Prophet but to a project 
under way in the Department of Geology. 
In 1954 and 1955, Members' Night visitors 
have had a glimpse of this, and reports in 
the Bulletin have told something of its 
story. In the Mecca project, we are de- 
ciphering the story of the life and the 
environment of a shallow sea that once 
crept across and drowned a forest near 
Mecca, Indiana, during the Coal Age (Penn- 
sylvanian period, about 240,000,000 years 
ago). 

Our basic information is pried from the 
rock that was once black mud on the 
bottom of that sea. We have split the rock, 




PALEONTOLOGISTS EXPLORE BAYOUS 

This navigable channel through the cypress swamp is provided by Bayou La- 
branche near New Orleans. The left bank is fringed with miles of alligator weed. 



a black shale, to thin shards, and have 
charted the position, character, and orien- 
tation of more than 62,000 fossils and fossil 
fragments in it. We have ground bits of the 
shale to near-transparency for study under 
the microscope. We have recorded clues to 
the depth of the ancient sea, its temperature, 
its saltiness, and of course its plant and 
animal life. 

But to interpret our clues and to under- 
stand what they mean in terms of an actual 
geographic environment that once existed, 
we have to know what environments are 



* Dr. Richardson is Curator of Fossil Invertebrates; 
Dr. Zangerl is Curator of Fossil Reptiles. 



possible. "The present," says every geology 
textbook, "is the key to the past." How, 
indeed, could it be otherwise? All the 
factors of an environment are controlled by 
natural forces — gravitation, atmospheric 
convection, erosion and deposition, chemical 
affinities, and many others; and natural 
forces, we are convinced, have nothing to 
do with time. They are in effect today, they 
operated in the past, and the future will 
know their continued validity. 

SCIENTIFIC CLUES WEIGHED 

Thus, with a general idea of what is 
possible and what is not, and with due 
attention to the immutable laws of nature, 
we were able to build up in our minds 
a developing picture of the Mecca environ- 
ment as we went along. The sea was 
shallow (because it 
had advanced slowly 
across a nearly flat 
shore); it was excep- 
tionally quiet (because 
the black bituminous 
mud had accumulated 
in undisturbed sheets 
and decaying fishes 
lying on the bottom 
were buried without 
being moved); it was 
warm (because the 
Coal Age climate was 
warm); it was con- 
nected with the open 
ocean (because it con- 
tains a few far-swim- 
ming marine shellfish) ; 
but it was not a norm- 
ally healthful marine 
environment (because 
the usual marine crea- 
tures of the time were 
not able to live in it); 
it was, in fact, from 
time to time quite 
a poisonous place (be- 
cause thousands of 
fishes died there) ; 
black muck accumu- 
lated rapidly on its 
bottom (quickly covering the dead fishes 
before they had completely decayed). 

So far, so good. This is, after all, a pretty 
complete picture. But certain questions 
plagued us. How can a black muck accumu- 
late quickly in water that has no current to 
carry it? How can a good-sized body of 
water be both shallow and quiet, so that 
wind and waves won't stir up the bottom? 
Just how long does it take for bacteria to 
reduce a fish carcass to its component bones, 
anyway? 

We searched the world's scientific litera- 
ture for answers and found that, though 
similar questions had come up before, they 
were in slightly different context and the 



answers weren't quite in line with what we 
wanted. So for a while we gave up looking 
in the rock for our answers, put the books 
back on the shelves, and set out to find 
some modern environment that would 
match what we knew of ancient Mecca. 

TO MISSISSIPPI DELTA 

Because Coal Age Mecca was subtropical, 
we looked for a region with subtropical 
climate. Because the flooded land was flat, 
we looked for a flat country, partly under 
water. Because it lay near the sea, we went 
toward the sea. Everything combined, then, 
to draw us to the Mississippi Delta country 
in Louisiana in thesummer season, and thither 
we went last July, seeking a modern Mecca. 
New Orleans is, of course, a "Mecca" in 
another sense — a more usual sense. For us 
it became doubly Mecca. We needed 
laboratory facilities, and with hospitality 
surely more generous than even the fabled 
Southern variety, Professor Fred Cagle and 
his staff of the Department of Zoology at 
Tulane University in New Orleans provided 
space for us to work and all the equipment 
we needed for exploring the swamps and 
lakes of the Delta country. 

It was with Tulane's outboard motorboat 
that we made our way through bayous and 
lagoons; with their microscope we studied 
the muds and animal life; in their alcohol 
we brought some of our evidence back to 
the Museum. We remain deeply grateful 
to many men of the Tulane staff for guiding 
us in the field and for sharing with us their 
detailed knowledge of the area. Dr. Royal 
Suttkus, Dr. George Penn, Dr. Milton 
Fingerman, Dr. Joseph Young, and Dr. and 
Mrs. Cagle, of the Department of Zoology, 
freely gave us their time; Mr. Fitzjarrel, 
the many-talented custodian of that depart- 
ment, found us all the supplies and equip- 
ment we needed. Dr. Donald Tinkle, about 
to assume a teaching position in Texas, 
guided us on foot into the swamps of the 
Sarpy Wildlife Refuge and there shared 
with us a subtropical thunderstorm. Joseph 
Ewen, of the Department of Botany, in- 
structed us in recognizing the different 
vegetation of salt- and freshwater-marshes. 
Dr. Richard J. Russell, Dean of the Gradu- 
ate College at Louisiana State University 
in Baton Rouge, told us of his work in the 
geographic study of the Gulf Coastal Plain, 
and Ed Orton, of the Institute of Coastal 
Plain Studies at Lousiana State University, 
guided us to Lake Hatch when Dean Rus- 
sell's description of it persuaded us that here, 
indeed, was Mecca. The help and interest 
of these people were equivalent to months 
of travel and study. 

The country to which they introduced us 
is very different from that of Illinois — or of 
present-day Mecca, Indiana. It is flat, 
lying very near to sea level (parts of the 
city of New Orleans itself are below sea 
level), the only natural relief being the 
natural levees along the Mississippi River 



November, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



and also those marking its abandoned 
courses. These natural levees, rising a few 
feet above the general level of the swamps, 
determine the location of towns, roads, and 
railroads. Thus a typical Delta town, like 
the city of Houma, though surrounded by 
miles of unpeopled land, is itself crowded 
and compact. Between the towns in the 
southern part of the Delta are extensive 
marshes and numerous shallow lakes of 
fresh or brackish water. Farther north, in 
the vicinity of New Orleans itself, are the 
storied cypress swamps, large expanses of 
forest knee-deep in water, drained by deeper 
waterways, the natural bayous and the 
man-made canals. Behind the city of New 
Orleans lies large and shallow Lake Pont- 
chartrain, its mud bottom rich in plant 
debris. We had thought that this lake 
might provide us with an analogy to Mecca, 
but we soon learned that any wind stirs up 
the bottom, and we had to discard Lake 
Pontchartrain. 

BAYOU BY-WAYS 

The swamps, while immune to wind, 
support a forest growth, as Mecca did not. 
The bayous, natural drainageways through 
the swamps, are also protected from wind, 
but they carry an appreciable current that 
keeps their bottoms scoured. However, 
garfish live in the bayous, as their remote 
ancestors, the palaeoniscoid fishes, lived at 
Mecca; and the bottom sediment in swamp 
and bayou is in large part decomposed 
plant-matter, as it was at Mecca. So we 
examined some typical bayous, finding some 
aspects of Mecca recreated for us. 

Many of the bayous, where not kept 
cleared by man, are choked with floating 
vegetation. The water hyacinth and the 
alligator weed, fast-growing plants dangling 
their roots in water rather than sinking them 
into soil, cover all untended water that is 
not too salty and interfere seriously with 
navigation. We found that this weedy mat 
will support a man, but only if he lies prone 
and is willing to be about half submerged. 
Walking on it might be possible with extra- 
large snowshoes (a feat that we didn't try). 

Dean Russell told us of the flotant, 
a unique type of marsh confined to the 
Delta country. Here, the surface of a lake 
or bayou is covered by the floating mat of 
water hyacinth and alligator weed, but other 
plants — reeds, rushes, grasses, and finally 
dry-land weeds and even shrubs have taken 
root upon it, making a well-knit upper crust 
as much as two or three feet thick. Beneath 
the flotant may be water of any depth; 
alligators and especially garpike live under 
it as seals live under the polar ice, and, like 
the seals, they have holes here and there 
for air. 

LIKE WALKING ON A MATTRESS 

With Mr. Orton's guidance, we explored 
a typical mature flotant, covering the surface 
of Lake Hatch, south of Houma. Near the 



shore of the lake, where we first stepped 
upon it, the flotant readily supports the 
weight of a man, though it gives underfoot, 
and one feels he is walking on a mattress. 
As in the muskeg swamps of the north, if 
one man jumps on the flotant, his companions 
bounce. Farther from shore, the vegetation 
becomes thinner as fewer and fewer shrubs, 
rushes, and land-plants lend their roots and 
stems to the knitting of the mattress. Here, 
we found, it is only too easy to step through 
the vegetation rather than upon it. Farther 
along, patches of pure water hyacinth and 
alligator weed are found, on which even 
prone creeping is difficult. In our brief 
foray onto Lake Hatch, though we gained 
a considerable distance from the shore, we 
never did manage to arrive at the open 
water. No matter; we were already far 
enough out to sink our coring rod into the 
bottom for a mud sample, and we were 
persuaded that here was an answer to some 
of the Mecca questions. 

The floating vegetation, whether firm 
enough to walk on or not, is the most 
effective damper of wind and wave. With 
such a cover, a body of water may be both 
shallow and quiet. Also, the cover is the 
source of the great quantity of decayed 
vegetation required to produce a black 
bitumous sediment such as that at Mecca. 
Lake Hatch, however, is not the perfect 
analogy; its water is fresh. In fresh water, 
sediment remains in suspension rather than 
settling quickly to the lake floor, and as 
a result, there is no definite bottom. In- 
stead the water becomes muddier and mud- 
dier with depth, and presently is a muddy 
soup, then a soupy mud, then a harder mud, 
and finally clay. We found that our coring 
rod sank about 10 feet into Lake Hatch of 
its own weight and could be pushed another 
14 feet with virtually no pressure before it 
finally brought up anything at all solid. 
This was not the condition in Mecca, where 
fish carcasses lay on a solid bottom and 
where dead sharks sank head first into mud, 
leaving body and tail to the attention of 
oxygen-using bacteria. However, if the 
water were slightly salty, a process known 
as flocculation would cause the sediment to 
sink rapidly, and the lake would have a more 
definite floor. Thus a salt or brackish body 
of water covered with a mat of vegetation 
would answer for Mecca. As it happens, 
the flotant of the present day cannot grow 
on salty water, but it is entirely possible 
(even, we think, probable) that a similar 
mat might have grown on the surface of our 
shallow Mecca sea. 

THE TIME ELEMENT 

Now, another of the initial questions set 
us to wondering how long it took to accumu- 
late the black shale at Mecca. But rate of 
deposition, especially under a flotant, is 
difficult to measure, and Dr. Russell in- 
formed us that little was known on this 
problem. We attempted an indirect esti- 



mate of the rate of mud accumulation. 
When an animal dies, it is immediately 
attacked by bacteria, causing decay, and 
the rate of decay depends on the temperature 
and on the amount of oxygen available to 
the bacteria. Decay continues, with at- 
tendant scattering of the separated parts 
of the carcass, until it is buried and the 
bacteria smothered; thereafter another 
group of bacteria, using no oxygen, takes 
over and the flesh is entirely consumed. 
If a fish carcass lies on the bottom of a lake, 
the oxygen-using bacteria will reduce it to 
bare bones in — but here's what no one could 
tell us — in how long a time? a month? three 
months? If we knew that, we could esti- 
mate the rate of shale formation at Mecca, 
for there our fossil fishes are found in various 
easily recognizable stages of disarticulation. 

In our experiment, we had to assume the 
temperature conditions and the oxygen sup- 
ply, and we had to assume that bacteria of 
a quarter of a billion years ago operated just 
like our modern acquaintances. But to 
evaluate the variables as much as possible, 
we picked several different underwater en- 
vironments in the Delta country. Here we 
set out dead fishes in screen cages to keep 
off the larger scavengers, and kept track of 
the rate of decay in water of various charac- 
ters. To our surprise, we found that one 
week was sufficient to reduce a %-pound 
fish to clean disjointed bones in water 
ranging from 79 degrees to over 100 degrees 
and with a variation in saltiness from a 
brackish coastal lagoon to the nearly fresh 
water of a cypress swamp. Apparently our 
variables of temperature and salt were not 
highly critical. At the present time, we 
have other fishes being observed for us by 
co-operators in Massachusetts, Idaho, and 
Illinois. Early returns show that in these 
appreciably cooler waters the decay rate is 
much slower than in Louisiana, as one 
might expect. 

The surprisingly consistent results of the 
fish-rotting experiments in the South give 
us a means of estimating how long it took 
for enough black sediment to settle on the 
Mecca fishes to prevent further disarticu- 
lation and scattering of the bones, and thus 
how long it took to form the shale. 

So, by means of an expedition to an area 
without fossils — and where we didn't even 
look for any — we have found answers, and 
guideposts to answers, for questions con- 
cerning fossils from long ago. Truly the 
Present is the Key to the Past. 



Daily Guide-Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered daily 
except Sundays under the title "Highlights 
of the Exhibits." These tours are designed 
to give a general idea of the entire Museum 
and its scope of activities. They begin at 
2 P.M. on Monday through Friday and at 
2 :30 p.m. on Saturday. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



November, 1956 



FOUR MORE FILM-LECTURES 
IN MUSEUM THEATRE 

Four more Saturday afternoons of travel 
via color motion-pictures and the lectures 
of explorers await Museum audiences in 
November. These remaining programs of 
the autumn season, provided by the Edward 
E. Ayer Lecture Foundation Fund, will be 
given in the James Simpson Theatre of the 
Museum, and all will begin at 2:30 p.m. 
Admittance is restricted to adults because 
of the limits of accommodations, but free 
programs of movies for children are pre- 
sented on the mornings of the same Satur- 
days under the auspices of the Raymond 
Foundation. 

No tickets are necessary for admission 
to these lectures. A section of the 
Theatre is allocated to Members of the 
Museum, each of whom is entitled to 
two reserved seats. Requests for these 
seats should be made in advance by 
telephone (WAbash 2-9410) or in writ- 
ing, and seats will be held in the Mem- 
ber's name until 2:25 o'clock on the 
lecture day. 

Following are the programs for adults: 

November 3 — Thrills on the Colorado 

Julian Gromer 
November 10 — Adventure in Africa 

Murl Deusing 
November 17 — Mediterranean Isles 

Herbert Knapp 
November 24 — River of the Crying Bird 

Allan Cruickshank 



AFRICAN KING'S HOUSE 



MOVIES FOR CHILDREN 
DURING NOVEMBER 

The autumn series of free movies for 
children will continue on Saturday mornings 
through November. The programs, pro- 
vided by the James Nelson and Anna Louise 
Raymond Foundation, begin at 10:30 A.M. 
and are given in the James Simpson Theatre 
of the Museum. No tickets are needed, and 
children are welcome to come alone, ac- 
companied by adults, or in groups. Dates 
and titles follow: 

November 3 — Prehistoric Times 

Strange undersea life; also dinosaurs, mam- 
moths, saber-tooth cats, and prehistoric 
hunters and artists 

Also a cartoon 
November 10 — Adventure in Africa 

A four-month and 10,000-mile safari 
Story by Murl Deusing 

November 17 — The Great Adventure 

Two boys' adventures on a Swedish farm 
(Arne Sucksdorff s nature masterpiece) 

November 24 — 'Gatorland 

Into the cypress swamps of Dixieland 
Story by Allen Cruickshank 




Photograph shows exterior of "palace" 
of mud with thatched roof and bamboo doors 
used by a tribal king in the Cameroons 
grasslands. This full-size reproduction has 
been installed in Hall E of the Museum. 
Especially notable are the intricately carved 
wooden door posts. The figures on these 
have many subtle symbolical implications. 
A peek into the interior of the royal residence 
is afforded by the picture on our cover. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of principal gifts re- 
ceived during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology: 

From: Transvaal Museum, Union of 
South Africa — 15 casts of human skeletal 
material 

Department of Botany: 

From: American Nurseryman, Chicago — 
Caesalpinia Gilliesii, Missouri; American 
Spice Trade Association, Chicago — samples 
of 32 spices and condiments; Henry F. 
Dunbar, Kingston, N. Y. — Asclepias syriaca 
var. kansana; C. E. Hansen, Chicago — 
3 plants; Nellie Haynie, Villa Park, 111. — 
2 plants; Lincoln Park Conservatory, 
Chicago — 2 plants; Dr. Dwight Moore, 
Fayetteville, Ark. — 5 plants; Juan V. 
Poncho, Chicago — 18 plants, Philippines; 
Mrs. Lauramarie Scharlett, Norwalk, Calif. 
— Sterculia villosa; Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, 
Homewood, 111.— 19 plants; Mrs. Ellen T. 
Smith, Lake Forest, 111. — Pterospora andro- 
medea, Ontario, Canada; Dr. John W. 
Thieret, Homewood, 111. — 33 plants; Vau- 
ghan's Seed Co., Chicago — Calendula of- 
ficinalis var. prolifera, Europe 

Department of Geology: 

From Indiana University, Bloomington 
— fossil insect; Maidi Wiebe, Maywood, 111. 
— specimen of Pennsylvanian trilobite 

Department of Zoology: 

From: Harry Hoostraal, Cairo, Egypt — 
265 mammals; Morris K. Jacobson, Rocka- 
way, N. Y. — five lots of inland shells, Peru; 
Jack P. Moyer, Hamilton, N. Y. — 2 mam- 
mals, Japan; Museo Argentino de Ciencias 
Naturales, Buenos Aires — 15 cricetine ro- 
dents; Col. Richard B. Stith, Lacon, 111. — 
trumpeter swan, North America; Iraq 
Natural History Museum — jackal skeleton; 
Miguel A. Klappenbach, Montevido, Uru- 
guay — 83 land-shells, Brazil; James G. 
McMillan, Winnetka, 111. — walking-stick 
insect 



AUDUBON SCREEN-TOUR 
ON NOVEMBER 18 

The Illinois Audubon Society will present 
the second of its 1956-57 screen-tours in the 
James Simpson Theatre of the Museum on 
Sunday afternoon, November 18, at 2:30 
o'clock. The lecture and color films, under 
the title "Cypress Kingdom," will be pre- 
sented by Alexander Sprunt, Jr., noted 
naturalist of the National Audubon Society. 

Sprunt will lead his audience into wooded 
labyrinths of the South that rank among the 
most mysterious of all regions, teeming with 
exotic vegetation and alive with alligators, 
egrets, and ibises. Visits by way of lily- 
filled water trails are made to the swamp 
homes of the Seminole Indians. Man's 
stature is dwarfed by the lofty columns of 
cypress and strangler fig, and airplants add 
extravagance to an already luxuriant 
foliage. 



NEW MEMBERS 

(September 17 to October 15) 

Associate Members 

Miss Kay Binder, Charles S. Dunphy, 
Robert O. Lehmann, Guy E. Reed, R. W. 
Regensburger, Earl Ross 

Sustaining Members 

Albert F. Haas, Dr. Robert R. Hartman, 
Robert D. Michels 

Annual Members 

R. H. Anderson, Herbert R. Arnold, 
Lester S. Auerbach, Dr. Seymour Banks, 
Miss Nell Bartels, Mrs. John C. Bell, Ray- 
mond H. Bish, Frederick M. Bowes, Dr. 
Charles W. Brewer, William F. Bunn, 
Raymond N. Carlen, Miss Dorothy Dag- 
gett, Joseph De Cesare, Joshua J. D. Deny, 
Winfield T. Durbin, L. A. Ellner, Max B. 
Friedlander, Gordon H. Gannett, Jr., Dr. 
John P. Graham, Donald D. Grassick, Dr. 
Ronald G. Haley, Dr. Donald J. Heffner, 
Raymond A. Hoffman, Lemuel B. Hunter, 
B. J. Jennings, Charles A. Jennings, J. D. 
Kelsey, George G. Kolar, William M. Kuz- 
miak, Oscar L. Lancaster, Jr., T. E. Lauder, 
Charles L. McEvoy, John L. Means, Mrs. 
Charles Metcalfe, Mrs. Dorothy Stone Mills, 
John H. Morava, Carl F. Morgan, Miss 
Etha C. Myers, Harold B. Myers, William 
E. O'Connor, John C. O'Gorman, Fred M. 
Padgett, R. W. Partridge, Stanley L. Payne, 
Kurt G. Penn, Dr. C. H. Piper, John S. 
Reed, Sam A. Rothermel, Werner Ryser, 
Mrs. Florence Scala, Dr. H. Frederick 
Staack, Jr., Harold Stein, Ralph Synnest- 
vedt, Thomas F. Tansey, Walter Stanley 
Tubutis, Jr., Edwin H. Schell, Erhardt M. 
Schmidt, V. R. Van Natta, G. W. Watts, 
Richard H. Whalen, William Patrick 
Whalen, Warren Wheary, Jerome P. Whis- 
ton, Gustave J. Willy, Richard Sidney 
Yager, William F. Zoll 



Ruthlessly destroyed, until in compara- 
tively recent years they became extinct, 
passenger pigeons are still preserved in a 
group in Stanley Field Hall. 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



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Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



December, 1956 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Ishah 

Sewell L. Avery Hughston M. McBain 

Wm. McCormick Blair William H. Mitchell 

Walther Buchen John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Walter J. Cummings Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field* John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

Samuel Insull, Jr. John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field* First Vice-President 

Hughston M. McBain Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

* Deceased November 8, 1956 



THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sh ak at K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. H arte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn. Jane Rockwell 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



MARSHALL FIELD 

1893-1956 

IN THE DEATH of Marshall Field, 
Chicago Natural History Museum has 
lost a friend and strong supporter. Mr. 
Field, grandson of the founder of the 
Museum, became a member of its Board of 
Trustees in 1914, a member of the Executive 
Committee the following year, and served 
as its First Vice-President since 1946. His 
interest was manifested not only in his 
activity on the Board, but through his 
personal touch with the work of the institu- 
tion. He had sponsored 48 expeditions, in 
addition to the one to Africa that he person- 
ally led and that brought back to the Mu- 
seum the splendid group of African lions 
displayed in Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall. 
His interests were as broad as the scope of 
the Museum itself. He had sponsored ex- 
peditions in this country and to all parts of 
the earth in search of zoological, botanical, 
and geological specimens. He also spon- 
sored several archaeological or ethnological 
expeditions that helped to round out the 
Museum's collections in the study of 
mankind. 

His greatest single gift to the Museum 
came in the fall of 1943 in connection with 
the 50th Anniversary of the Museum, which, 
until that time, had borne the family name 



of "Field." At the anniversary celebration 
Stanley Field, the President of the Museum, 
announced the change in name to Chicago 
Natural History Museum, noting that 
members of the Field family, including 
Marshall Field, had thought it best for the 
future of the institution that the Museum 
be identified with the city of Chicago rather 
than with the family that had been re- 
sponsible for its development to a position 
of pre-eminence in research and education. 

Mr. Marshall Field was a frequent visitor 
to the Museum and was personally ac- 
quainted with many members of the staff. 
His personal encouragement as well as his 
generous sponsorship endeared him to those 
to whom was entrusted the responsibility 
of bringing the institution to the front rank 
among scientific institutions of its kind. 

His interest in the Museum employees as 
individuals made him one of the proponents 
of the Museum's pension plan that was 
established in 1939. Some years earlier, his 
benefactions had restored full salaries to the 
employees, after the depression of 1929 had 
forced a reduction in salaries as well as in 
all other phases of operation. 

He will always be remembered by the 
members of the Museum staff as a genial 
visitor with an unusual appreciation of their 
work and a personal interest in their pro- 
gress and welfare. 

— C.C.G. 



STAFF NOTES 



D. Dwight Davis, Curator of Vertebrate 
Anatomy, recently gave an illustrated lec- 
ture at North Central College on the 
Museum's Seventeen-year Cicada Project 
.... Dr. Robert H. Denison, Curator of 
Fossil Fishes, and Bruce Erickson, Pre- 
parator of Fossils, are working on a collection 
of fossil fishes they recently brought from 
Columbus, Ohio. The collection is a gift 
from J. Ernest Carmen, Professor Emeritus 
of Geology at Ohio State University .... 
Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, Curator of the 
Phanerogamic Herbarium, recently lectured 
before the University Club of Waukegan on 
the lost world of Venezuela and before the 
Chicago Horticultural Society on wild 
flowers .... Roland W. Force, Curator of 
Oceanic Archaeology and Ethnology, recently 
spoke on aspects of Pacific ethnology before 
seminars at Northwestern University and 
the University of Chicago .... George I. 
Quimby, Curator of North American 
Archaeology and Ethnology, recently con- 
sulted collections in the Milwaukee Public 
Museum in connection with his Great Lakes 
area archaeological project .... Mrs. Meta 
P. Howell, Librarian, Mrs. M. Eileen 
Rocourt, Associate Librarian, and Miss 
Marjorie A. West, Assistant to the Li- 
brarian, attended the recent meeting of the 
Special Libraries Association in Chicago. 



THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



Marshall Field, Trustee and 
First Vice-President of the Mu- 
seum who died November 8, was 
one of the outstanding Benefac- 
tors of the Museum. Many ex- 
hibits now in the Museum re- 
sulted from contributions of Mr. 
Field and from expeditions he 
sponsored. Two pages of this 
Bulletin (4 and 5) are devoted to 
pictures of a selection of these. 
Mr. Field also added vastly to the 
research resources of the Mu- 
seum's study collections. The 
cover portrait is from a photo- 
graph by the Halsman Studio of 
New York. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of principal gifts re- 
ceived during the past month: 

Department of Zoology: 

From: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 
— 2 land-shells, Aneitum, New Hebrides; 
Sister Adrian Marie O. P., Notre Dame, 
Ind. — 2 stained fish-specimens, Minnesota 
and Ohio; Dr. Harold Trapido, Poona, 
India — 471 reptiles and amphibians, mam- 
mal, Panama; U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Seattle — 3 fishes, North Pacific; 
Fraser Walsh, Formosa — 2 birdskins; Maidi 
Wiebe, Maywood, 111. — 2 lots of fresh- 
water mollusks, Wisconsin; Nancy Traylor, 
Winnetka, 111.— 2 fishes; U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Pascagoula, Miss. — 66 
fishes, Atlantic Ocean, off Florida; Fraser 
Walsh, Formosa — 7 butterflies, 26 insects, 
2 birdskins; Dr. Wolfgang Weyrauch, Lima, 
Peru — a collection of Peruvian shells; Louis 
O. Williams, Tegucigalpa, Honduras — 
salamander, Costa Rica; Alex K. Wyatt, 
Chicago — 50 butterflies and moths, Mexico; 
Seymour H. Levy, Tucson, Ariz. — lizard, 
Illinois; Mrs. R. J. Rogers, Chicago — species 
of land-shell, Miyoko Island, Ryukyu 
Islands; U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
161 fishes, 5 lots of marine invertebrates, 
Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean; Art 
Institute of Chicago — 22 bronze animal 
figures; Dr. William S. Bullock, Angol, Chile 
— £ salamanders, 16 frogs, 20 lizards; Ray- 
mond Grow, Gary, Ind. — birdskin; N. L. H. 
Krauss, Honolulu, 2 frogs, Mexico 

Library: 

Books from: Archie F. Wilson, Short Hills, 
N. J.; Dr. Paul D. Voth, Chicago; Dr. Austin 
L. Rand, Chesterton, Ind.; Dr. Richard N. 
Wegner, Greifswald, Germany; Alexander 
Lindsay, Oak Park, 111. 



Museum to be Closed 
on Two Holidays 

The Museum will be closed on Christmas 
and New Year's Day so that its employees 
may remain with their families. These are 
the only two days in the year when the 
Museum is not open to visitors. 



December, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page S 



SONGLESS PERCHING BIRDS HAVE CHARM OF DIVERSITY 



By EMMET R. BLAKE 

CURATOR OF BIRDS 

A "SONGBIRD" that resembles a 
pheasant, a handsome red-and-black 
bird remarkable for its courtship dance, 
a colorful tropical American species with 
a bill of grotesque dimensions, and a drab 
thrush-like bird whose explosive call is as 



MANAKIN5 



iB WM—j. - 




'Perching Birds' in New Exhibit 

startling as the whistle of a Michigan 
Avenue traffic officer are among the 
scores of interesting birds that comprise 
a new exhibit recently added to the Syn- 
optic Series in Boardman Conover Hall 
(Hall 21). 

The twenty-two bird families of the latest 
exhibit both complete our display of the 
world's "perching birds" (Passeriformes) 
and introduce several related families, the 
woodpeckers and their allies (Piciformes). 
Although the distinction between these 
great Orders of birds is not at once apparent, 
being of an anatomical nature, their juxta- 
position in a single exhibit brings together 
birds of remarkable diversity, as reflected 
in their size, form, color, habits, and distri- 
bution. As in earlier exhibits of this series, 
the characteristics of each family are 
emphasized by placing them on individual 
plaques, these being arranged on a large 
panel in a manner that suggests the relation- 
ships of the several groups. A series of 
maps shows the distribution of each family. 

AUSTRALIA'S LYRE-BIRD 

The largest and, in many respects, the 
most remarkable bird in this display is the 
lyre-bird of Australia. Much like a pheasant 
in appearance, and with a long lyre-shaped 



tail from which is derived the English name, 
it is an extraordinary mimic and has a reper- 
toire of loud liquid calls that places it 
among the foremost of Australian songsters. 
Lyre-birds, solitary and notably shy, live 
in the undergrowth of wild, rough country. 
Recent studies have shown that the unique 
lyriform tail of the adult male, possessed by 
only one of the two 
known species, is not 
acquired before the 
seventh or eighth year 
of age. The sixteen 
feathers of the tail are 
molted annually there- 
after and require 
about four months for 
replacement. 

Birds of brilliant 
plumage and others 
with subdued coloring 
often are members of 
a single family. Di- 
versity of plumage is 
especially conspicu- 
ous among cotingas, 
a characteristic tropi- 
cal American family of 
which one species 
(Xantus's Becard) oc- 
curs locally in south- 
ern Arizona. One of 
the most colorful co- 
tingas is the cock-of- 
the-rock, a native of 
northern South Amer- 
ica. The two species, one orange-and-black, 
the other red-and-black, suggest miniature 
domestic fowls, the resemblance being en- 
hanced by their crests of unusual form. 
Females are drab brownish and lack special 
adornments. Both species frequent humid 
forests and prefer ravines choked with 
boulders and undergrowth. In spring the 
males clear arenas on the forest floor where, 
watched by females, they strut and posture 
in a nuptial dance. 

ONE HAS A 'POMPADOUR' 

Other well-known cotingas are the bell- 
birds, with their ringing metallic calls; the 
umbrella-bird, largest of all, with a remark- 
able pompadour of feathers; the capuchin- 
bird, bare of head, with a call suggesting 
the bawling of a lost calf; the fruit-crows; 
and the screaming piha. The latter, a gray 
robin-sized bird, lives in the lowland 
forests of South America. Its shrill whistle 
has a ventriloquial quality and is surprisingly 
loud for so small a creature. Several in- 
dividuals sometimes sing alternately, the 
jungle ringing with their calls. One of my 
earliest and most vivid recollections of the 
Amazonian forest is the occasion when I 
became badly lost while attempting to 
locate what I thought to be a single bird. 



Toucans, of which three species are shown > 
are spectacular chiefly because of their out- 
sized bills and grotesque appearance. All 
are restricted to tropical America and most 
live in the humid lowlands. Toucans' bills, 
despite their size, are quite light by reason 
of their cellular structure. In some species 
the bill is tinted with yellow, green, blue, or 
red. Toucans feed on fruit and berries, and, 
at certain seasons, flocks of several species 
may gather in favored trees. 

Familiar birds as well as the rare and 
strange have a place in the exhibit, for it is 
designed to show a cross-section of birdlife. 
A pileated and a golden-fronted woodpecker, 
both well-known in the United States, 
compete for attention with a European 
wryneck, Asiatic crimson-backed wood- 
pecker, and others on the woodpecker panel. 
Local birdwatchers may be surprised by the 
range of size to be found in this family 
alone, as illustrated by a piculet measuring 
some three inches in length and by a Mexi- 
can imperial ivory-billed woodpecker that 
exceeds a raven in size. Jacamar, puffbird, 
honeyguide, woodhewer, tapaculo, pitta, 
asities, and manakin are a few of the family 
names that become alive and meaningful 
when associated with the examples now on 
exhibit in Hall 21. 

The exhibit was designed by the Division 
of Birds. Taxidermy is by Carl W. Cotton. 



BIRDS OF VENEZUELA 
IN WATER COLORS 

A special exhibit of water-color paintings 
of 64 of the best-known birds of Venezuela 
is scheduled for showing in Stanley Field 
Hall from December 24 to January 27 
inclusive. The paintings are the work of 
Kathleen Deery de Phelps (Mrs. William H. 
de Phelps, Jr.), who is a resident of Caracas, 
where her husband is connected with the 
Natural History Museum. Large photo- 
graphs of Venezuelan scenes will be inter- 
spersed with the paintings in the exhibit. 

Mrs. Phelp's bird pictures, the originals 
of which will be shown here, have been 
reproduced as illustrations in a handbook 
on South American birds published by the 
Creole Petroleum Company. 



Daily Guide-Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered daily 
except Sundays under the title "Highlights 
of the Exhibits." These tours are designed 
to give a general idea of the entire Museum 
and its scope of activities. They begin at 
2 p.m. on Monday through Friday and at 
2:30 P.M. on Saturday. 

Special tours on subjects within the range 
of the Museum exhibits are available Mon- 
days through Fridays for parties of ten or 
more persons by advance request. 




MARSHALL FIELD Gl 



o 



Jade figurine, 
Colombia 



Temple gateway from Babylonia as restored in Hall K 



MARSHALL FIELD 
49 expeditions for Ch 
ral History Museum — pro 
than any other man has < 
written anywhere. These t 
covered a vast geograp 
""tA V 3Sl J Scores of scientists were ser 

^L;_^mj?r\ regions of Africa, Madagasc 
\ 1 m~^ S$E- East, Asia, and both Ame: 

SHt A JB nents. They collected mod 

and fossils of creatures 
hundreds of millions of years. Their archaeological 
bared civilizations of centuries ago. They collected ( 
materials representing many primitive peoples. Th 
specimens of exotic plant life. Mr. Field himself cc 
expedition to Africa that resulted in a habitat gro 
On these pages are shown only a few of the addil 
exhibits made possible by Marshall Field expe< 
contributions. Research collections also were expa 




Habitat group of crocodiles, Hall 18 



South American tapirs. Hall 16 





collected by Marshall Field, Hall 22 



Megatherium — giant ground sloth of Bolivia, H 



Page A 



S TO CHICAGO 




Gold figurine, 
Colombia 




Azilian boar-hunt diorama, Hall C 



;  




Glyptodon, from Argentina, Pleistocene epoch 

Page 5 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



December, 1956 



COLLECTING FOSSILS 
IN WASHAKIE BASIN 

Bv WILLIAM D. TURNBULL 

ASSISTANT CURATOR OF FOSSIL MAMMALS 

THE Washakie Basin of southwestern 
Wyoming — locale of the Museum's 1956 
Paleontological Expedition — is one of the 
largest areas within the United States to 
retain a character of extreme isolation. It 
is a high and very arid intermontane basin 
nestled among several ranges of the Rockies, 
including the Uinta and Medicine Bow 
mountains. The drainage is largely inter- 
mittent: the beds of the major streams lie 
at an elevation of about 6,500 feet at their 
lowest reaches within the basin. Badlands 
are extensively developed in parts of the 
basin. Although the uplands seldom reach 
heights of 8,500 feet and thus do not present 
the phenomenal topographic relief often 




COLLECTING REQUIRES PERSISTENCE 
Orville L. Gilpin, Chief Preparator of Fossils, is 
busy on the tough job of working a fossil rhinoceros 
jaw out of its sandstone channel matrix on Wyoming 
expedition. The pebble-strewn sandstone surfaces 
and crevasses 40 feet deep add to difficulties. 

seen in "true" mountains with granitic cores, 
they do form striking scarp "mountains." 
These become the more impressive when one 
considers that they are but erosional 
features — the remnants of what once 
were far more extensive flood-plain and 
lake-bed sedimentary deposits that were 
stacked like plates, one above the other, 
and that have since been dissected and 
partly weathered away by the slow but 
effective action of the wind and water. 

Rainfall amounts to only a few inches 
a year: the winter snows contribute the 
bulk of the annual precipitation. Permanent 
human habitation is virtually limited to the 
extreme periphery of the basin. Sage hens, 
lizards, antelopes, cotton-tail rabbits, and 
small rodents abound, and bobcats, "wild" 
horses, and deer are seen occasionally. 
Historically, this is the country of the pony 
express, the overland stage coach, and later 
of Jesse James. 

Such is the nature of the country selected 
for this year's fossil mammal search. Choice 



of the area was governed by several con- 
siderations. In the first place, the Mu- 
seum's study collection of fossil mammals 
of middle and late Eocene age (about 50 
million years ago) needed bolstering and, 
since many of the Washakie Basin sedi- 
ments were deposited during the latter part 
of this epoch, it was satisfactory from this 
standpoint. A further consideration was 
the likelihood that more knowledge and 
finds of greater significance would be apt 
to result from working this isolated, hence 
more neglected, basin than from working 
one of the better-known basins with well- 
known faunas. 

Results of this year's two-month collect- 
ing trip are quite gratifying. The Museum 
now has an excellent start toward the 
assemblage of a middle Eocene fauna from 
this locality — a fauna comprised of early 
members of most of the modern mammalian 
groups including representatives of some of 
their aberrant side branches, as well 
as a few archaic mammals, carry-overs 
from earlier times. The perissodactyls, 
represented by rhinoceroses and titano- 
theres, are the most common members of 
the fauna. Horses also were present, and 
small artiodactyls, rodents, and carnivores 
occur in numbers. Of the aberrant and 
archaic forms, uintatheres, condylarths, and 
pantodonts were found. In all, close to 
a ton of fossils in the rock was shipped or 
carried home from the field, enough to 
provide an occasional happy diversion from 
dinosaurs for the preparation staff, and 
fascinating material for study. 

I was accompanied in the field by Orville 
L. Gilpin, Chief Preparator of Fossils. We 
enjoyed the security of a new field vehicle, 
complete with four-wheel drive and a power 
winch, which provided us with the best and 
most reliable transportation we have ever 
had for field work. The vast uninhabited 
distances found in that part of the country 
make it imperative not only that reliable 
equipment be used but also that adequate 
emergency supplies of food, water, and 
gasoline be constantly available. The new 
vehicle quite literally made accessible areas 
that otherwise could have been reached only 
by pack trips that would have been pro- 
hibitively time-consuming. It permitted us 
to begin a systematic prospecting of all 
faunal levels and to collect in any area of 
the basin. 



Boys and Girls of 4-H Clubs 
Make Annual Museum Tours 

In accordance with the tradition of many 
years, the Museum was host on November 
27 to about 1,300 farm boys and girls from 
almost every state and from Canada as well. 
These young people were \vinners of awards 
for excellence of achievement and came to 
Chicago as delegates to the National Con- 
gress of 4-H Clubs, which is held each year 



simultaneously with the International Live- 
stock Exposition. The group was about 
equally divided between boys and girls. 
The entire staff of the Raymond Foundation 
and other staff members assisted the visitors 
in touring those sections of the Museum 
exhibits that conformed with individual 
interests. 



GIGANTIC TASK ENDS, 
AND BEGINS AGAIN 

Two and one-half years of nearly con- 
tinuous work in splitting tons of shale from 
a Mecca (Indiana) quarry in search of tiny 
fossils came to an end in the paleontological 
laboratories last month, but the curators 
involved — Dr. Rainer Zangerl (Fossil Rep- 
tiles) and Dr. Eugene S. Richardson, Jr. 
(Fossil Invertebrates) — found themselves 
only at a new beginning of a task that will 
require many more years to complete. They 
are now faced with the interpretation of the 
vast quantity of data assembled in the 
gigantic rock-breaking job they have come 
through. From their investigations they 
expect to reconstruct the story of the life 
in this part of the Middle West some 
240,000,000 years ago when forests were 
drowned in the sweep of a sea across the 




area. In the photograph Dr. Clifford C. 
Gregg (left), Director of the Museum, 
temporarily assuming the role of an honor- 
ary curator, has just split the last piece of 
shale and is pointing to a detail on one 
of the slabs. Characteristically, Dr. Zangerl 
(center) and Dr. Richardson (right) display 
no unhappiness over the formidable research 
task now confronting them. At least, their 
many weeks of back-tiring work with pickax 
to dislodge the shale from the quarry floor 
and to load fifteen truckloads of it for 
transport to Chicago are behind them. 



The history and culture of the Indians of 
North, Central, and South America are 
broadly covered in exhibits occupying seven 
halls of the Department of Anthropology 
(Halls 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10). 



December, 1956 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



BURIED TREASURE' LEFT 
BY ANCIENT INDIANS 

By JOHN B. RINALDO 

ASSISTANT CURATOR OF ARCHAEOLOGY 

ONE OF THE MOST enjoyable experi- 
ences in archaeology is the discovery of 
a cache or secret hoard. Much of what is 
found in excavating ruined dwellings is 
trivial — small fragments of various pottery 
vessels, tiny flint chips, and unworked 
animal bone that have been scattered at 
random through the trash and rubble of 
fallen walls. 

But when broken cooking pots are found 
still in place where they were left, standing 
by the fire, or the milling stones still where 
they were laid carefully side by side after 
grinding was done, the archaeologist derives 
a certain satisfaction in seeing how these 
things were actually used. From the posi- 
tion of these things something more specific 
and intimate is learned about these ancient 
peoples than that this or that pottery-type 
or scraper-type was prevalent during sev- 
eral generations. Consequently this satis- 
faction is even greater when the archaeolo- 
gist is so fortunate as to discover a group of 
objects hidden away in a secret hoard that 
certainly has remained undisturbed since it 
was sealed up by someone long ago. Here 
he derives not only the archaeologist's satis- 
faction of finding a direct personal link 
between himself and that individual human 
being of long ago and the things valued and 
used in ritual or craft activities but also the 
fascination of discovering the secret loca- 
tion and contents of buried "treasure" — 
although the value of the "treasure" may be 
negligible from our point of view. 

THRILL OF DISCOVERY 

I cannot adequately convey the emo- 
tional charge of such an experience. The first 
such cache that I remember finding was 
discovered in the course of clearing the floor 
of a ceremonial room in a small ruin in 
western New Mexico. While scraping along 
the wall with a trowel I noticed a soft place 
filled with ashy earth — the evidence of a pit 
that, instead of being located in the usual 
manner out in the room, ran underneath the 
wall. On probing and digging this out far- 
ther with the trowel, we struck into a hollow- 
place that yielded in succession the skeleton 
of a turkey, two medium-size bowls with 
burnished black interior, a small narrow- 
mouthed jar, a cut-shell bracelet, and frag- 
ments of turquoise. These were obviously 
objects of considerable ritual value that had 
been placed together in this hoard after 
some ceremony. 

A second series of such caches was better 
concealed but contained less spectacular 
objects. These caches were discovered 
while we were excavating a cliff-dwelling 
located in a cave in the mountains of the 
same area. It was our practice in this ruin 
to scrape off the adobe plaster with which 



ISLAND HOMES PROVIDE SECURITY TO BIRDS 



BY AUSTIN L. RAND 

CHIEF CURATOR OF ZOOLOGY 

MODERN MEN have written escapist 
literature about their experiences in 
"Island Solitude," or "How We Found 
an Island Home," and back in medieval 
times many a baron's castle was turned into 
an artificial island by a moat encircling it. 
But long before that, birds had taken ad- 
vantage of the seclusion and freedom from 
intrusion and attack provided by islands. 

The great "bird cities" of Bering Sea 
where auklets swirl up in countless swarms 
from their nests, the great colonies of gan- 
nets in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the 
tern colonies of the Carolina and Texas 
coasts with birds by tens of thousands, 
the noddy and sooty 
terns' nesting-grounds 
in the Dry Tortugas, 
and the rookeries of 
the murres off our west 
coast where the star- 
tled birds pour from a 
ledge like a waterfall 
— these colonies all are 
on islands where raids 
by fox, cat, weasel, and 
raccoon are unlikely. 

This island nesting 
is especially important 
for ground-nesting 
colonial birds, where 
a predator, finding one 
nest, finds all. But 
some solitary nesters 
favor islands, too. 

The loons, whose loud wails and screams 
are such thrilling sounds in the vacationland 
of the north woods, nest on islands in lakes 
when they can. Their distant relatives, the 
grebes, also like to have their nests sur- 
rounded by water when they can. Scorning 
the limitations of islands formed by geo- 
logical processes, grebes make their own 
castles out in the water. They dive and 
bring up water-weed that they pile in one 



place, making a sodden heap. Sometimes 
the weeds form an island and sometimes 
a raft, depending on the depth of the water, 
and in the top of this mound the grebe 
makes a hollow for its eggs. 

Most coots, which are aberrant swimming 
rails, make a floating nest like that of 
a grebe, but from South America Dr. S. 
Dillon Ripley, of Yale University, brings 
back a story of a horned coot that makes an 
island of stones for its nest. 

The horned coot, one of the rarest of birds, 
lives only on lakes high in the Andes. There 
vegetation is scarce and the horned coots 
bring pebbles to a selected site in shallow 
water and pile them up until a low mound 
appears above the surface. In the top of this 




the coot lines a hollow with algae for its 
eggs. The mound may be as much as three 
feet high, and the weight of one nest has 
been estimated at one and one-half tons. 
This making of a rock island for a nest site 
seems unique in the bird world, and the 
weight of the nest would vie with that of 
the great heaps of earth that the mound 
builders of the Australian area scrape to- 
gether for their nests. 



floors of the rooms were coated. In the 
approximate center of one of the rear rooms 
this process revealed a small cup-like cavity 
in which had been placed a carved prayer 
stick and some ears of corn wrapped up 
carefully in a fragment of reed mat. Cer- 
tainly these were ritual offerings to some 
ancestral god of the Pueblo Indians. 

In this same room a large corn storage-pit 
was partitioned off into two bell-shaped 
sections, one of which extended under the 
wall. In this latter section, back under- 
neath the wall in the pitch darkness, I felt 
a plug of adobe. I worked this loose and 
found behind it a small cubbyhole contain- 
ing a number of ears of corn, possibly seed 
corn, that somebody had taken special pre- 
cautions to secrete. 



In yet another room, located at the front 
of the cave, while examining the wall plaster 
I noted a peculiar circular bump situated 
about half-way up the back wall. I scraped 
around this with my knife and trowel and 
thus revealed another adobe plug. In the 
niche behind this seal were two lumps of 
azurite — a bright blue mineral highly prized 
for pigment by contemporary Pueblo 
Indians. Furthermore, the two lumps fitted 
nicely together into what had been a single 
piece. 

Such discoveries are not the usual ex- 
perience of archaeologists, but we go out 
each field-season with the hope of adding 
by such means to a more intimate know- 
ledge of how people lived in the past. Such 
knowledge offers lessons for the present. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



December, 1956 



EARLY ENTRIES URGED 
IN PHOTO CONTEST 

The photographs you most cherish from 
a recent vacation may prove of interest to 
others, too, and may merit exhibition and 
possibly a prize in the forthcoming Twelfth 
Chicago International Exhibition of Nature 
Photography. The exhibition will be held 
during February in Stanley Field Hall of the 
Museum under the sponsorship of the 
Nature Camera Club of Chicago. 

Among contests limited exclusively to 
subjects in nature this contest is the world's 
largest. It is also one of the largest photo 
contests of any kind. 

Early entries are solicited to facilitate the 
task of classifying the photographs in pre- 
paration for their ultimate judging. The 
deadline for entries is January 14. 

The judges appointed by the Chicago 
Nature Camera Club are: Russel Kriete, 
photographer; Dr. Jay Webb Lowell, phy- 
sician and photographer; Barbara Palser, 
of the University of Chicago's Department 
of Botany; Dr. Eugene S. Richardson, Jr., 
Curator of Fossil Invertebrates at the Mu- 
seum; and Melvin A. Traylor, Jr., Assistant 
Curator of Birds at the Museum. 

As usual, entries will be in two divisions 
— prints and color slides. Prints may be 
either in color or black-and-white. Those 
selected by the judges will be displayed in 
Stanley Field Hall. The successful color- 
slide entries will be projected on the screen 
of the James Simpson Theatre on two 
Sunday afternoons during February. 

To be eligible, entries in both the print 
and slide divisions must qualify under three 
subclassifications: (1) Animal Life, (2) 
Plant Life, or (3) General. Scenic views, geo- 
logical formations, clouds, and other natural 
phenomena that do not fit into either the 
animal or plant-life sections will be included 
in the General classification. In each classi- 
fication of prints and slides, medals and 
ribbons will be awarded by the Nature 
Camera Club of Chicago. In addition, the 
Photographic Society of America will award 
special prizes. 

Contestants are permitted to submit up 
to four entries in each division. Photo- 
graphs should be sent to the Museum. 
Entry forms containing complete informa- 
tion on the rules may be obtained by request 
to the Museum. 



CHIEF CURATOR ROY BACK 

FROM VOLCANIC STUDIES 

Dr. Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator of 
Geology, has returned from two and one- 
half months of volcanic studies in Mexico, 
Guatemala, and El Salvador. In Mexico 
his field work was confined to Mesozoic and 
Cenozoic volcanoes; in Guatemala he visited 
Agua, Fuego, Acatenango, and Santa Maria 
volcanoes, and in El Salvador the volcanoes 
of San Miguel, San Vicente, San Salvador, 



Ilopango, Santa Ana, and Izalco, and the 
cinder cones of Metapan. 

The most important observation of 
volcanism made by Dr. Roy was at Volcan 
Izalco in El Salvador. Last year, on 
February 28, Izalco had the most violent 
eruption in its history, during which it 
literally "blew its top" and split its northeast 
flank, pouring forth a vast flow of lava, 
ashes, and cinders. This year, in September, 
Dr. Roy found the volcano appearing as 
though nothing had happened. It has re- 
gained its original shape and height by 
pouring ashes and cinders over the damaged 
area. Dr. Roy believes that Izalco's action 
typifies that of all other volcanoes of its 
kind — that damages caused by eruptions 
are soon repaired. 



CHRISTMAS SHOPPING 
EASY VIA MUSEUM 

The Museum offers two unique 
special services that make Christmas 
shopping easy. If you use them you 
don't have to leave your home, you 
stay away from crowds, and you don't 
have to wrap packages. Everything 
you need to do can be done at your 
own desk. 

First, there is the plan for giving 
Museum Memberships as Christmas 
gifts. This is completely described in 
a separate leaflet enclosed with this 
Bulletin. 

Second, there is the Museum BOOK 
SHOP, which handles orders by mail 
or telephone (WAbash 2-9410). It 
has a fine selection of books for both 
adults and children, all endorsed by 
members of the Museum scientific 
staff. It offers unusual art objects, 
notably authentic native wood-carv- 
ings recently received from Africa. 
There are also novelties, toys, and 
items for juvenile collectors. The 
BOOK SHOP will handle all details 
of wrapping and mailing gift purchases 
to recipients, together with such per- 
sonal greetings as the purchaser may 
specify, charging only postal costs. 



Ancestors Are Influential 
In African Cameroon 

Ancestor worship in the Cameroon region 
of West Africa involves a special dance in 
which ancestral skulls are placed in a se- 
cluded spot near their wooden effigies. 
Proximity to the skulls, it is believed, imbues 
the images with the spirits of the ancestors, 
after which the effigies are kept in a dwelling 
house and fed, treated with respect, and 
consulted about the future. Other habits 
and customs of the people of West and 
Central Africa are illustrated in Hall D. 



EIGHTH JOURNEY OFFERS 
HOLIDAY ANIMAL HUNT 

Beginning this month, and continuing 
daily through January, girls and boys are 
offered an entertaining way to learn more 
about the meaning of the holiday season 
when "Holiday Animal Hunt" — Museum 
Journey No. 8 — is held at the Museum. 

Animals associated with holiday stories 
and legends — from Rudolph the Rednosed 
Reindeer (whose other name is the Alaskan 
caribou) to the dove, a symbol of peace and 
the spirit of the holiday season — will be 
waiting in the Museum's halls to be recog- 
nized and identified. A questionnaire and 
instruction sheet will be available at the 
Museum's north and south entrances for 
children who wish to participate. 

Girls and boys who complete four Mu- 
seum Journeys successfully can become 
Museum Travelers; those who complete 
eight are Museum Adventurers and the 
recipients of special awards. Youngsters 
may take the Journeys at any time during 
regular Museum visiting hours (9 A.M. to 
4 P.M.). 



NEW MEMBERS 

(October 16 to November 15) 

Associate Members 

Arthur S. Bowes, Dr. Harley E. Cluxton, 
Jr., Theodore A. Criel, Jr., Mrs. Robert F. 
Dick, Norman E. Johnson, Dr. Fiske Jones, 
Paul C. Kimball, William C. Kraus, William 
H. Miller, Mrs. Langdon Pearse, Philip S. 
Rinaldo, Jr., Dr. Armin F. Schick, Frederick 
J. Slater, Mrs. M. B. Trimble 

Sustaining Member 

David H. Betts 

Annual Members 

Burton R. Abrams, Irving S. Abrams, 
James Ross Abrams, Francis M. Anderson, 
Mrs. H. D. Arneson, Bruce Baker, John E. 
Benz, Fred G. Billings, R. M. Brockett, 
Dave Chapman, John W. Christensen, Miss 
Lorena Clarke, Dr. Maurice H. Cottle, 
Edwin E. Dato, D. E. Davidson, James M. 
Doss, Arthur Filerman, E. S. Files, E. E. 
Foulks, Mrs. Silvia Freudenfeld, Howard 
S. Gold, Fred L. Goldsby, Raymond J. 
Graham, Horace C. Hime, Donald G. Hodg- 
don, Walter P. Hooper, Robert A. Kellberg, 
Dr. Joseph L. Koczur, Adolph Krause, Mrs. 
Ross Llewellyn, Mrs. Ernest G. Loeb, Roy 
F. Melchior, Arthur J. Miller, Jr., Henry 
E. Miller, Joseph L. Mullin, Mrs. Arnold 
C. Nelson, Jr., Paul K. Newberg, Kenneth 
R. Nixon, Mark L. Patterson, Lindell Peter- 
son, Chester L. Posey, Howard C. Reeder, 
Jerry R. Scandiff, Miss Helen M. Seelmayer, 
Harry G. Shaffer, Dr. Sidney V. Soanes, 
Lawrence F. Stern, Paul M. Stokes, Merle 
Stone, Robert E. Sutton, Richard Wessling, 
Jack M. Whitney II, Alexander M. Wood 



A stone age type of culture that has per- 
sisted in the modern world is represented by 
exhibits in Hall A-l illustrating the life and 
customs of Australian aboriginals. 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PR3SS